2Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Section 1: Applied GeneticsSection 2: DNA TechnologySection 3: The Human Genome
313.1 Applied Genetics Selective Breeding Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsSelective BreedingThe process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to their future generations is called selective breeding.Saint BernardRescue dogHuskySled dogGerman shepherdService dog
4Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsHybridizationHybrid organisms can be bred to be more disease-resistant, to produce more offspring, or to grow faster.A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is time consuming and expensive.
5Pure breeds are maintained by inbreeding. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsInbreedingThe process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have the desired traits and to eliminate the undesired ones in future generationsPure breeds are maintained by inbreeding.A disadvantage of inbreeding is that harmful recessive traits also can be passed on to future generations.
6Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsTest CrossA test cross involves breeding an organism that has the unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait.
7Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetic EngineeringTechnology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA.
8Genetically engineered organisms are used Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetically engineered organisms are usedto study the expression of a particular gene.to investigate cellular processes.to study the development of a certain disease.Genetically engineered bollwormto select traits that might be beneficial to humans.
9An organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyDNA ToolsAn organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell.DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and to isolate genes from the rest of the genome.
10Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyRestriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the sequence.Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for isolating specific genes or regions of the genome.
11EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyEcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC.The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends, contain single-stranded DNA that is complementary.
13The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyAn electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis.When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel.The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.
14Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGel electrophoresisThe unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.
15Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyThe newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA.
16Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTo make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA.Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.
17Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyLarge numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning.
18Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTo understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four nucleotides—A, C, G, T in a tube.
19Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyEach nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye.Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged nucleotide isincorporated into the newly synthesized strand,the reaction stops.
20Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyThe sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.
21Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyA technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.
25Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyBiotechnologyOrganisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.
26Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic AnimalsScientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research.Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans
27Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic PlantsGenetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls.Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest.Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.Gene Splicing
28The Human Genome Project Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe Human Genome ProjectThe goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.
29Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeSequencing the GenomeEach of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved.These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines.Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence.
30Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDecoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared toreading a book that was printed in code.
31These regions are called noncoding sequences. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeLess than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body.The genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function.These regions are called noncoding sequences.
32Protein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDNA FingerprintingProtein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals.The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual.DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.
33Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeIdentifying GenesResearchers have identified genes by scanning the sequence for Open Reading Frames (ORFs).ORFs contain at least 100 codons that begin with a start codon and end with a stop codon.
34Creating and maintaining databases of biological information Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeBioinformaticsCreating and maintaining databases of biological informationFinding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins
35Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDNA MicroarraysTiny microscope slides or silicon chips that are spotted with DNA fragmentsHelp researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by genetic factors or environmental factors.
37Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeVariations in the DNA sequence that occur when a single nucleotide in the genome is altered are called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs.
38Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeRegions of linked variations in the human genome are known as haplotypes.Assembling the HapMap involves identifying groups of SNPs in a specific region of DNA.
39Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe HapMap will enable geneticists to take advantage of how SNPs and other genetic variations are organized on chromosomes.
40Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe study of how genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs is called pharmacogenomics.The benefits of pharmacogenomics include more accurate dosing of drugs that are safer and more specific.
41A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeA technique aimed at correcting mutated genesthat cause human diseasesis called gene therapy.Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene.Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome.
42Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeGenes are the primary information storage units, whereas proteins are the machines of a cell.
43Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe large-scale study and cataloging of the structure and function of proteins in the human body is called proteomics.
44Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
45Which statement is not true of hybridization? Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich statement is not true of hybridization?It is relatively inexpensive to perform.It produces offspring with specific traits.It crosses a parent organism with different forms of a trait.It can take a long time to be successful.ABCDCDQ 1
46Name the process that scientists use to Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsName the process that scientists use toseparate DNA fragments according to size.genetic engineeringgel electrophoresiscleavingselective breedingABCDCDQ 2
47Select the process in which one type of Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Diagnostic QuestionsSelect the process in which one type ofbacterium takes up the DNA from anothertype of bacterium.cloningsequencingtransformationmanipulationABCDCDQ 3
48Which term explains how humans have been Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Formative QuestionsWhich term explains how humans have beenable to produce a wide variety of domesticcats?homogenizationinbreedingselective breedingtest crossingABCDFQ 1
49Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Formative QuestionsA new breed of cattle has been developed by crossing English Shorthorn cattle, which provide good beef but cannot withstand hot environments, and Brahman cattle from India that have a high heat tolerance but produce poor beef. The new breed, Santa Gertrudis, produces excellent beef and can live in hot environments. Which term describes Santa Gertrudis cattle?ABCDcross breedhybridoutbredpurebredFQ 2
50Harmful recessive traits can be passed Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Formative QuestionsHarmful recessive traits can be passedthrough generations of purebred animalsas a result of _______.hybridizationinbreedingline breedingout crossingABCDFQ 3
51Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Formative QuestionsOnce a tomato grower observes the desired trait in her tomato plants, she decides to perform a test cross. What is the purpose for doing the test cross?to determine if the trait is dominant or recessiveto determine the phenotype of the plantsto determine if the plants carry beneficial recessive allelesto determine if the plants are homozygous dominant or heterozygousABCDFQ 4
52What is the name for the technology that Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is the name for the technology thatinvolves inserting the genes of one organisminto the DNA of another organism?bioengineeringcloninggenetic engineeringtransgenicsABCDFQ 5
53Which type of protein can recognize specific Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 Formative QuestionsWhich type of protein can recognize specificDNA sequences and cleave the DNA withinthat sequence?DNA ligasepolymeraserestriction enzymetranscriptaseABCDFQ 6
54Which process separates DNA fragments Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 Formative QuestionsWhich process separates DNA fragmentsaccording to size and has many applicationsin genetic engineering and biotechnology?DNA fragmentationgel electrophoresistransgenic cloningpolymerase chain reactionABCDFQ 7
55A DNA molecule that has had genes from Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 Formative QuestionsA DNA molecule that has had genes fromanother organism inserted into it is called_______.complementary DNAexogenous DNAgenomic DNArecombinant DNAABCDFQ 8
56Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 Formative QuestionsWhy is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) one of the most powerful tools used by scientists?It can be used to identify errors in DNA sequences and predict the function of genes.It can detect a single DNA molecule in a sample and make millions of copies of it.It creates large amounts of recombinant DNA in genetically engineered organisms.It creates DNA fragments with sticky ends that can join with other DNA fragments.ABCDFQ 9
57Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 Formative QuestionsThe task of sequencing the entire DNA in human cells has been completed.TrueFasleABFQ 10
58Which sections of human DNA are unique to every individual? Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 Formative QuestionsWhich sections of human DNA are unique toevery individual?the noncoding sequencesthe regions that code for proteinsthe sections that contain genesthe genes that code for fingerprintsABCDFQ 11
59Which field of study involves the careful Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 Formative QuestionsWhich field of study involves the carefulstorage, organization and indexing of dataon DNA sequences?algorithmsbioanalysisbioinformaticsmicroarray analysisABCDFQ 12
60If the genome represents the words in a Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 Formative QuestionsIf the genome represents the words in adictionary, then the definition and usage ofthose words is represented by the _______.haplotypechromosomeDNAproteomeABCDFQ 13
61Look at the following image. These are the results of what process? Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the following image. These arethe results of what process?Answer: a test crossCAQ 1
62What is the role of the molecule shown in DNA cloning? Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat is the role of the molecule shown in DNA cloning?to carry the foreign DNA into the host cellto identify the source of DNA as foreignto identify the host cell that has taken up the gene of interestto make the foreign DNA susceptible to digestion with enzymesABCDCAQ 2
63All are homozygous recessive. All are heterozygous. Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in the cross to the right?1:2:11:1All are homozygous recessive.All are heterozygous.ABCDCAQ 3
64BB Bb bb bW Standardized Test Practice Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyStandardized Test PracticeA person wishes to raise guinea pigs with black fur, the dominant trait. She selects a male black guinea pig and performs a test cross with a female that has white fur, the recessive trait. What is the black guinea pig’s genotype if any of the offspring are white?BBBbbbbWABCDSTP 1
65Standardized Test Practice Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyStandardized Test PracticeHow do researchers distinguish between the bacterial cells that contain the recombinant DNA and those that do not?They observe the two types of cells under a microscope.They tag the recombinant DNA with fluorescent dye.They use an antibiotic to kill the cells that do not contain recombinant DNA.They use gel electrophoresis to separate the cells containing recombinant DNA.ABCDSTP 2
66Which is not yet a use for transgenic organisms? Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not yet a use for transgenic organisms?animals that can produce organs for organ transplantsanimals that can secrete enzymes that are useful to humansbacteria that can decompose oil spills and garbageplants that are resistant to insects and virusesABCDSTP 3
67Standardized Test Practice Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyStandardized Test PracticeWhich transgenic species could pose a potential threat to other organisms?bacteria that are resistant to antibioticschickens and turkeys that are resistant to diseasescotton that is resistant to herbicides and infectiongoats that secrete a protein used to prevent human blood from forming clotsABCDSTP 4
68Standardized Test Practice Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyStandardized Test PracticeWhy has the Food and Drug Administration halted clinical trials using gene therapy?The clinical trials affect the body’s response to drugs.There is a risk of producing a transgenic human.Inserting genes is done by a virus that infects the patient’s cells.Doctors are able to take advantage of genetic variations on chromosomes.ABCDSTP 5
69Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 13Genetics and BiotechnologyGlencoe Biology Transparencies