Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Section 1: Applied Genetics Section 2: DNA Technology Section 3: The Human Genome."— Presentation transcript:
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Section 1: Applied Genetics Section 2: DNA Technology Section 3: The Human Genome
The process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to their future generations is called selective breeding. Selective Breeding Genetics and Biotechnology German shepherd Service dog Husky Sled dog Saint Bernard Rescue dog 13.1 Applied Genetics Chapter 13
Hybridization Genetics and Biotechnology Hybrid organisms can be bred to be more disease-resistant, to produce more offspring, or to grow faster. A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is time consuming and expensive. 13.1 Applied Genetics Chapter 13
Inbreeding Genetics and Biotechnology The process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have the desired traits and to eliminate the undesired ones in future generations Pure breeds are maintained by inbreeding. A disadvantage of inbreeding is that harmful recessive traits also can be passed on to future generations. 13.1 Applied Genetics Chapter 13
A test cross involves breeding an organism that has the unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait. Genetics and Biotechnology Test Cross 13.1 Applied Genetics Chapter 13
Genetic Engineering Technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA. Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetically engineered organisms are used Genetics and Biotechnology to study the expression of a particular gene. to investigate cellular processes. to study the development of a certain disease. to select traits that might be beneficial to humans. 13.2 DNA Technology Genetically engineered bollworm Chapter 13
DNA Tools Genetics and Biotechnology An organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and to isolate genes from the rest of the genome. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for isolating specific genes or regions of the genome. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13 Restriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the sequence.
Genetics and Biotechnology The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends, contain single- stranded DNA that is complementary. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13 EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC.
Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology An electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis. When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel. The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology The unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification. 13.2 DNA Technology Gel electrophoresis Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology To make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA. Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Large numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology To understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four nucleotides—A, C, G, T in a tube. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye. Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged nucleotide is incorporated into the newly synthesized strand, the reaction stops. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology The sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13 A technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.
Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Biotechnology Organisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Transgenic Animals Scientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research. Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Transgenic Plants Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest. Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition. 13.2 DNA Technology Chapter 13 Gene Splicing
The Human Genome Project The goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes. Genetics and Biotechnology 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Sequencing the Genome Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. Genetics and Biotechnology These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines. Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to reading a book that was printed in code. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Less than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body. Genetics and Biotechnology The genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function. These regions are called noncoding sequences. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
DNA Fingerprinting Genetics and Biotechnology Protein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals. The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual. DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Identifying Genes Genetics and Biotechnology Researchers have identified genes by scanning the sequence for Open Reading Frames (ORFs). ORFs contain at least 100 codons that begin with a start codon and end with a stop codon. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Bioinformatics Genetics and Biotechnology Creating and maintaining databases of biological information Finding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
DNA Microarrays Genetics and Biotechnology Tiny microscope slides or silicon chips that are spotted with DNA fragments Help researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by genetic factors or environmental factors. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Variations in the DNA sequence that occur when a single nucleotide in the genome is altered are called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Regions of linked variations in the human genome are known as haplotypes. Genetics and Biotechnology Assembling the HapMap involves identifying groups of SNPs in a specific region of DNA. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
The HapMap will enable geneticists to take advantage of how SNPs and other genetic variations are organized on chromosomes. Genetics and Biotechnology 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology The benefits of pharmacogenomics include more accurate dosing of drugs that are safer and more specific. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13 The study of how genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs is called pharmacogenomics.
Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome. A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human diseases is called gene therapy. Genetics and Biotechnology Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene. 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
Genes are the primary information storage units, whereas proteins are the machines of a cell. Genetics and Biotechnology 13.3 The Human Genome Chapter 13
The large-scale study and cataloging of the structure and function of proteins in the human body is called proteomics. 13.3 The Human Genome Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter 13
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 A. It is relatively inexpensive to perform. B. It produces offspring with specific traits. C. It crosses a parent organism with different forms of a trait. D. It can take a long time to be successful. Which statement is not true of hybridization? Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Chapter Diagnostic Questions
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Chapter Diagnostic Questions A. genetic engineering B. gel electrophoresis C. cleaving D. selective breeding Name the process that scientists use to separate DNA fragments according to size.
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Chapter Diagnostic Questions A. cloning B. sequencing C. transformation D. manipulation Select the process in which one type of bacterium takes up the DNA from another type of bacterium.
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 1 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 A. homogenization B. inbreeding C. selective breeding D. test crossing Which term explains how humans have been able to produce a wide variety of domestic cats? 13.1 Formative Questions
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 2 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.1 Formative Questions A new breed of cattle has been developed by crossing English Shorthorn cattle, which provide good beef but cannot withstand hot environments, and Brahman cattle from India that have a high heat tolerance but produce poor beef. The new breed, Santa Gertrudis, produces excellent beef and can live in hot environments. Which term describes Santa Gertrudis cattle? A. cross breed B. hybrid C. outbred D. purebred
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.1 Formative Questions A. hybridization B. inbreeding C. line breeding D. out crossing Harmful recessive traits can be passed through generations of purebred animals as a result of _______.
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 4 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.1 Formative Questions Once a tomato grower observes the desired trait in her tomato plants, she decides to perform a test cross. What is the purpose for doing the test cross? A. to determine if the trait is dominant or recessive B. to determine the phenotype of the plants C. to determine if the plants carry beneficial recessive alleles D. to determine if the plants are homozygous dominant or heterozygous
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 5 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 A. bioengineering B. cloning C. genetic engineering D. transgenics What is the name for the technology that involves inserting the genes of one organism into the DNA of another organism? 13.2 Formative Questions
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 6 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 Formative Questions A. DNA ligase B. polymerase C. restriction enzyme D. transcriptase Which type of protein can recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within that sequence?
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 7 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 Formative Questions A. DNA fragmentation B. gel electrophoresis C. transgenic cloning D. polymerase chain reaction Which process separates DNA fragments according to size and has many applications in genetic engineering and biotechnology?
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 8 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 Formative Questions A. complementary DNA B. exogenous DNA C. genomic DNA D. recombinant DNA A DNA molecule that has had genes from another organism inserted into it is called _______.
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 9 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.2 Formative Questions Why is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) one of the most powerful tools used by scientists? A. It can be used to identify errors in DNA sequences and predict the function of genes. B. It can detect a single DNA molecule in a sample and make millions of copies of it. C. It creates large amounts of recombinant DNA in genetically engineered organisms. D. It creates DNA fragments with sticky ends that can join with other DNA fragments.
1.A 2.B FQ 10 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 The task of sequencing the entire DNA in human cells has been completed. A. True B. Fasle 13.3 Formative Questions
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 11 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 Formative Questions A. the noncoding sequences B. the regions that code for proteins C. the sections that contain genes D. the genes that code for fingerprints Which sections of human DNA are unique to every individual?
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 12 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 Formative Questions A. algorithms B. bioanalysis C. bioinformatics D. microarray analysis Which field of study involves the careful storage, organization and indexing of data on DNA sequences?
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 13 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 13.3 Formative Questions A. haplotype B. chromosome C. DNA D. proteome If the genome represents the words in a dictionary, then the definition and usage of those words is represented by the _______.
Look at the following image. These are the results of what process? Answer: a test cross Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Chapter Assessment Questions CAQ 1
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 2 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 What is the role of the molecule shown in DNA cloning? A. to carry the foreign DNA into the host cell B. to identify the source of DNA as foreign C. to identify the host cell that has taken up the gene of interest D. to make the foreign DNA susceptible to digestion with enzymes Chapter Assessment Questions
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Chapter Assessment Questions A. 1:2:1 B. 1:1 C. All are homozygous recessive. D. All are heterozygous. What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in the cross to the right?
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 1 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 A person wishes to raise guinea pigs with black fur, the dominant trait. She selects a male black guinea pig and performs a test cross with a female that has white fur, the recessive trait. What is the black guinea pig’s genotype if any of the offspring are white? A. BB B. Bb C. bb D. bW Standardized Test Practice
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 2 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Standardized Test Practice How do researchers distinguish between the bacterial cells that contain the recombinant DNA and those that do not? A. They observe the two types of cells under a microscope. B. They tag the recombinant DNA with fluorescent dye. C. They use an antibiotic to kill the cells that do not contain recombinant DNA. D. They use gel electrophoresis to separate the cells containing recombinant DNA.
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 3 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Standardized Test Practice Which is not yet a use for transgenic organisms? A. animals that can produce organs for organ transplants B. animals that can secrete enzymes that are useful to humans C. bacteria that can decompose oil spills and garbage D. plants that are resistant to insects and viruses
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 4 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Standardized Test Practice Which transgenic species could pose a potential threat to other organisms? A. bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics B. chickens and turkeys that are resistant to diseases C. cotton that is resistant to herbicides and infection D. goats that secrete a protein used to prevent human blood from forming clots
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 5 Genetics and Biotechnology Chapter 13 Standardized Test Practice Why has the Food and Drug Administration halted clinical trials using gene therapy? A. The clinical trials affect the body’s response to drugs. B. There is a risk of producing a transgenic human. C. Inserting genes is done by a virus that infects the patient’s cells. D. Doctors are able to take advantage of genetic variations on chromosomes.
Genetics and Biotechnology Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 13
Genetics and Biotechnology Image Bank Chapter 13
selective breeding inbreeding test cross Genetics and Biotechnology Vocabulary Section 1 Chapter 13
genetic engineering genome restriction enzyme gel electrophoresis recombinant DNA plasmid DNA ligase transformation cloning polymerase chain reaction transgenic organism Genetics and Biotechnology Vocabulary Section 2 Chapter 13
DNA fingerprinting bioinformatics DNA microarray single nucleotide polymorphism haplotype pharmacogenomics gene therapy genomics proteomics Genetics and Biotechnology Vocabulary Section 3 Chapter 13