2 Name some foods that you eat. How is Genetics used in everyday life?Name some foods that you eat.How many of them do you think are genetically altered?
3 Genetically Modified Foods What are the Benefits?What are the Risks?Believe It or Not,YOU are the generationthat will decidehow to use this technology!!!!
4 GenomeIs the complete set of genetic material in an organism- the order of the bases in the DNACan fit into the nucleus of a single cell because of the “packing system”
5 The Human Genome Project Mapping the sequence of nucleotides…ACCGTTTAACCGTATAGGACCACT…for the entire amount of DNA in our cellsThis info is then entered into a computer databaseResearchers then compare the data to find genes, evolutionary links, and more
6 Recombinant DNACombines genes from different sources into a single DNA moleculeWhy is this useful?Organisms can be modified to produce products that benefit everyoneExamples:Bacteria that could clean up oil spills or toxic waste sitesVaccine productionInsulin production – Pure human formGene cloning5. Genetically modified plants and animals
7 BiotechnologyThe use of organisms to perform practical tasks for humans- to analyze and manipulate the genomes of organisms
8 PlasmidsA small circular DNA molecule separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome.
10 Restriction EnzymesThese are tools used to “cut” DNA in specific locationsAAAATTCCGAGACGAATTCAATACGAATTCGGGTTAAACCCCCGAATTCGGGCCTCAHow many times do you see GAATTC?Draw a line between the G&A (in these sections)So how many sections of DNA do you have now?
11 The Good With the BadThe manipulation of DNA allows scientists to do some interesting things.**Scientists have developed many transgenic organisms, which are organisms that contain genes from other organisms.Recently, scientists have removed a gene for green fluorescent protein from a jellyfish and tried to insert it into a monkey.
12 1. **Transgenic animals are often used in research. What might be the benefit to medical research of a mouse whose immune system is genetically altered to mimic some aspect of the human immune system?2. **Transgenic plants and animals may have increased value as food sources.What might happen to native species if transgenic animals or plants were released into the wild?
13 Nucleic Acid Probe Let’s say we want to find the sequence TAGGCT A complimentary strand of DNA that has been radioactively labeledLet’s say we want to find the sequence TAGGCT
14 Plants Animals Animal Cloning What is it How is it done When? Use of plasmids from the soil to introduce new genesTo improve the characteristics of the plantsTo delay ripeningImproved nutritional contentResistance to spoilage or diseaseExtract an egg cellSperm fertilizes the eggDesired gene is injected into the fertilized eggSame as plants- better quality “wool”Or to mature in a shorter timeTo make vaccinesGrowth hormonesThe nucleus from a single cell replaces the nucleus of an unfertilized egg from another animal- the egg develops into an animal that has the same genome as the nuclear donorCloning can offer the potential to mass produce an animalEntire genomes can be cloned“Dolly”
15 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence.How?The newly synthesized DNA strands can serve as templates for making more DNA—amplifying the desired sequence.When?Can detect viral genes infected with the virus that causes AIDS
17 **Genetic Markers- particular stretches of DNA that are variable among individuals Ex.) DNA fragments that include certain disease alleles have distinct genetic markers**DNA fingerprinting- a particular banding pattern produced by your restriction fragments- Unless you have an identical twin, it is unlikely to have the exact same fingerprint
18 Gel ElectrophoresisA method of separating large molecules (such as DNA fragments or proteins).How?An electric current is passed through a medium containing the mixtureEach kind of molecule travels through the medium at a different rate, depending on its electrical charge and size.Separation is based on these differences.
19 Gel Electrophoresis DNA plus restriction enzyme Power source Longer fragmentsMixture of DNA fragmentsShorter fragmentsGel
23 Stem cells-Cells with the potential to “turn into” an undifferentiated cells-Have the potential into various types of cells
24 DNA SequencingAny lab technique used to find out the sequence of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule or fragment.
25 DNA Sequencing Power source Gel Single strand of DNA Fluorescent dye Strand broken after AStrand broken after CStrand broken after GStrand broken after TPower sourceGelDNA SequencingGo to Section:
26 Gene TherapyThe process of introducing new genes into the DNA of a person's cells to correct a genetic disease or flaw
27 Making Recombinant DNA Section 13-3Gene for human growth hormoneRecombinant DNAGene for human growth hormoneDNA recombinationHuman CellSticky endsDNA insertionBacterial CellPlasmidBacterial cell containing gene for human growth hormoneGo to Section:Bacterial chromosome
28 Cloning A body cell is taken from a donor animal. FlowchartCloningA body cell is taken from a donor animal.An egg cell is taken from a donor animal.The nucleus is removed from the egg.The body cell and egg are fused by electric shock.The fused cell begins dividing, becoming an embryo.The embryo is implanted into the uterus of a foster mother.The embryo develops into a cloned animal.
29 Cloning of the First Mammal A donor cell is taken from a sheep’s udder.Donor NucleusThese two cells are fused using an electric shock.Fused CellEgg CellCloned LambThe nucleus of the egg cell is removed.An egg cell is taken from an adult female sheep.EmbryoThe fused cell begins dividing normally.The embryo develops normally into a lamb—DollyThe embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother.Foster MotherGo to Section: