Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Anatomy & Histology and Anatomical Terminology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Anatomy & Histology and Anatomical Terminology المحاضرة الأولىIntroduction to Anatomy & Histology andAnatomical Terminology
2 Anatomical Terminology The anatomical position is an imaginary one, used for any person whatever his actual position. It is widely used in all medical fields, not only for learning purposes but also as a landmark for charting various problems.
3 Anatomical position is identified while the person is standing erect, with the face and eyes directed forwards, the upper limbs straight beside the body and the palms of hands directed forwards
4 Median Sagittal Plane: ANATOMICAL PLANESThey are imaginary planes to describe the relations of different organs to each other.Median Sagittal Plane:It is an imaginary vertical plane, passing antero-posteriorly through the midline of the body dividing it into 2 equal halves "right and left".
5 Coronal Plane:It is an imaginary vertical plane, passing from side to side (at a right angle to the sagittal plane), dividing it into anterior and posterior parts.
6 Transverse plane:It is an imaginary horizontal plane, passing horizontally through the body at a right angle to the sagittal and coronal planes dividing it into upper and lower parts.
7 (A)ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATED TO POSITION 1- Medial or Lateral: Any structure near the midline of the body is called; medial, e.g. big (1st) toe is medial to other toes of foot. Any structure away from the midline of the body is called; lateral, e.g. thumb (first finger) is lateral to other fingers of hand. N.B.: Most of the structures have medial and lateral surfaces, except midline structures.
8 2- Anterior or Posterior : * Any structure near the front of the body is called; "anterior or ventral".* Any structure near the back of the body is called; "posterior or dorsal".
9 3- Superior or Inferior: * Any structure near the upper end of the body is called; "superior".* Any structure near the lower end of the body is called; "inferior".
10 4- Superficial or Deep : * Any structure near the surface of the body is called; "superficial". * Any structure away from the surface of the body is called; "deep".
11 (B)ANATOMICAL TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT They include the following:1- Flexion or Extension:Flexion: It is bending of a joint of limb.Extension: It is straightening of a flexed joint.Lateral Flexion:It is the flexion (or bending) of the trunk.
12 Abduction or Adduction: Abduction: It is a movement of a limb away from the body. Adduction: It is a movement of a limb towards the body.
13 3- Rotation: Rotatory movement of a limb (or a join) around its long axis. Medial Rotation: Direction of the front of the rotated part medially. Lateral Rotation: Direction of the front of the rotated part laterally.
14 4- Pronation or Supination: "Movement of the forearm” Pronation: It is the rotation of the forearm to direct the palm of the hand posteriorly. Supination: It is the rotation of the forearm to direct the palm of the hand anteriorly.
15 Inversion or Eversion: "Movement of the foot” Inversion: Movement of the foot to direct the sole medially (or inwards).Eversion: Movement of the foot to direct the sole laterally (or outwards).