3THE ANATOMIC POSITIONStanding erect with the face and eyes directed forward.Arms extended by the sides with the palms facing forward (anteriorly).Heels together and toes pointed forward.All positioning terms refer to the anatomic position.
5BODY PLANES - Imaginary lines passing through the body in the anatomic position. Midsagittal Plane (median plane) is a longitudinal plane.Divides body into equal right and left portionsAbbreviated MSPA sagittal plane divides the body into right and left sections, but not equally. These planes run parallel with the midsagittal plane.
6BODY PLANES Midcoronal plane is a longitudinal plane. Divides the body into equal front (anterior) and back (posterior) sections.Abbreviated MCPCoronal planes divide the body into front and back sections, but not equally. These planes run parallel with the midcoronal plane.
7BODY PLANES Horizontal, Transverse, or Axial Planes Any transverse plane dividing the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) sections.
9BODY SURFACES (OPPOSITES) Anterior (ventral)Front half of the body that includes the top of the feet and the palms of the hands. Refers also to the forward part of an organ.Posterior (dorsal)Back half of the body that includes the bottom of the feet and the back of the hands. Refers also to the back part of an organ.
10SURFACES OF THE FEET & HANDS Plantar – soles of feet (posterior)Dorsum – top of the foot (anterior)“dorsum pedis”Palmar – palm of hand that is known also as the anterior or ventral surface
11GENERAL BODY POSITIOINS Supine – lying on the back, face up.Prone – Lying face down.Recumbent – Lying down in any position.Trendelenburg’s position – Supine with the head lower than the feet.Fowler’s position – Supine with the head higher than the feetErect – (includes seated erect position)Upright position.
16SPECIFIC BODY POSITIONS Always described by the side or sides closest to the image receptor!Erect or recumbent lateral position:Right lateral – right side closest to IR.Left lateral – left side closest to the IRDemonstrates a side view.
20ANSWERIf you answered right lateral, recumbent position, you are correct.
21OBLIQUE POSITIONSThe chest, abdomen, or pelvis is rotated from the supine, prone or lateral positions.A limb is rotated from the AP, PA or lateral positions.
22SPECIFIC OBLIQUE BODY POSITIONS Anterior Obliques – as laterals are descibed by the body surfaces closest to the IR.RAO – right anterior oblique position – right and anterior surfaces closest to image receptor.LAO – left anterior oblique – left and anterior surfaces closest to IR.
26ANSWERIf you answered recumbent, right anterior oblique, you are correct.
27SPECIFIC OBLIQUE BODY POSITIONS Posterior Obliques –As laterals and anterior oblique positions are always described by the surfaces closest to the IRRPO – right posterior oblique position- right and posterior surfaces closest to IR.LPO – left posterior oblique position- left and posterior surfaces closest to IR.
31ANSWERIf you answered recumbent, left posterior oblique, you are correct.
32An image taken in the RAO position will correspond with an image taken in the LPO position An image takes in the LAO position will correspond with an image taken in the RPO position.
33OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS OF THE EXTREMITIES Require quantifying terms:Medial or internal rotation – The limb is turned in toward the median plane or midline of the patient.Lateral or external rotation – The limb is turned away from the median plane or midline of the patient.
37SPECIFIC BODY POSITIONS Decubitus positions always require a horizontal central ray and vertical placement of the image receptor (IR).Decubitus means to lie down.
38SPECIFIC DECUBITUS POSITIONS LLD – Left lateral decubitus position – Patient lying on left side with the IR placed vertically and the x-ray beam horizontal.RLD – right lateral decubitus position –Patient lying on their right side with the IR placed vertically and the x-ray beam horizontal.
40SPECIFIC DECUBITUS POSITIONS Dorsal decubitus position –Patient lying on back with the IR placed vertically adjacent to a side of the patient, and the x-ray beam horizontal.Ventral decubitus position –Patient lying face down with the IR placed vertically adjacent to a side of the patient, and the x-ray beam horizontal.Both the dorsal and ventral decubitus positions ALWAYS DEMONSTRATE A SIDE OR LATERAL IMAGE!
43RADIOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS Projections are different from positions in that they describe the path of the central ray (CR) or x-ray beam as it passes through the patient.The term projection always refers to the path of the central ray as it exits the x-ray tube, traverses the patient and reaches the IR, regardless of the body position.
44AP (ANTEROPOSTERIOR) PROJECTION CR enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface.IR closest to the posterior surface of the patient.Produces a posterior view. A view is the opposite of a projection.When viewing a radiograph the term view represents a position. For example, if the patient is radiographed in the lateral position then the image is said to be a lateral view.
48OBLIQUE BODY PROJECTIONS Includes the thorax (chest), abdomen, and pelvis.RAO and LAO positions are posterior oblique projections, because the central ray will enter the posterior surface of the patient and exit the anterior surface.RPO or LPO positions are anterior oblique projections.
49Projections of the Feet The feet are commonly imaged so that the CR enters the top or superior surface of the foot (dorsum) and exits the bottom or inferior surface of the foot (plantar). Thus the projection is referred to as the dorsoplantar projection.
50AXIAL PROJECTIONSLongitudinal angulations of the central ray x-ray tube) toward the head (cephalad) or the feet (caudad).
52TANGENTIAL PROJECTION The CR is directed toward the outer margin of a curved body surface to profile a body part just under the surface or a surface lesion and project it free of superimposition.
53TANGENTIAL PROJECTON OF THE CHEEK BONE OR ZYGOMA
54TANGENTIAL PROJECTION OF THE KNEE CAP OR PATELLA
55RELATIONSHIP TERMSMedial - “inside part” – closest to median plane or midline of the bodyLateral – away from median plane or midline of body.Proximal – near the source or beginning. In regards to extremities, the part closest to the trunk of the body.Distal – away from the source. In regards to extremities, the part furthest from the trunk of the body.
57RELATIONSHIP TERMS Cephalad – toward the head Caudad – toward the feet Superior – nearer the head or situated aboveInferior – nearer the feet or situated belowIpsolateral - part or parts on the same side of the bodyContralateral – Part or parts on the opposite side of the body
58BODY MOVEMENT TERMINOLOGY Abduction – lateral movement of arm or leg away from the bodyAdduction – movement of arm or leg toward the bodyFlexion – bending or decreasing the angle of a jointExtension – Straightening or increasing the angle of a joint
61BODY MOVEMENT TERMINOLOGY Eversion – outward turning of the foot at the ankleInversion – inward turning of the foot at the anklePronation – Tuning the palm of the hand downSupination – Turning the palm of the hand up