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Anatomical/ Directional Terms

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomical/ Directional Terms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomical/ Directional Terms
proximal distal lateral medial superior (cranial) inferior (caudal) anterior (ventral) NOT SHOWN posterior (dorsal) Distal - further from trunk Proximal - closer to trunk Lateral - away from midline Medial - closer to midline Anterior - front side (aka ventral) Posterior - back side (aka dorsal) Superior - closer to head (aka cranial) Inferior - further from head (aka caudal) Superficial - closer to surface Deep - further from surface Plantar - bottom of foot Dorsal - top of foot

2 PLANES PLANE -- a two-dimensional surface defined by 3 points
not on the same line (i.e. not colinear) pt 2 pt 1 pt 3 PLANE MOTION OCCURS “IN A PLANE”

3 Leg Swing during gait (walking/running)
Plane Even though leg has considerable thickness - only consider the joint centers and the lines connecting them; so “thin” segments define the leg which swings “IN THE PLANE”

4 AXES AXIS -- a line passing AXIS perpendicularly through a plane PLANE

5 Leg Swing during gait (walking/running)

6 Motion occurs “IN A PLANE”

7 Body Planes Sagittal -- vertical plane that divides the body into RIGHT and LEFT parts Frontal -- vertical plane that divides the body into ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR parts Transverse -- horizontal planes that divides the body into TOP and BOTTOM parts Transverse Plane Sagittal Plane Frontal

8 Cardinal or “Mid” Planes
DEFINITION -- if a plane passes through the body such that it divides it into equal mass halves INTERSECTION -- the point at which the mid-sagittal, mid-frontal, and mid-transverse planes intersect is the CENTER OF MASS MID-SAGGITAL PLANE SAGITTAL

9 Body Planes & Axes Sagittal Plane = Medial-Lateral Axis (ML)
Frontal Plane = Anterior-Posterior Axis (AP) Transverse Plane = Longitudinal Axis

10 Sagittal Plane Movements

11 Sagittal Plane Joint Mvmts
flexion = decrease angle between 2 segs extension = increase angle between 2 segs

12 Sagittal Plane Joint Mvmts
dorsiflexion = point toes up (towards shin) plantar flexion = point toes down

13 Frontal Plane Movements

14 Frontal Plane Joint Mvmts
abduction = move away from midline adduction = move towards midline

15 Frontal Plane Joint Mvmts
elevation = move shoulder girdle superiorly depression = move shoulder girdle inferiorly

16 Frontal Plane Joint Mvmts
inversion = lift medial border of foot eversion = lift lateral border of foot

17 Frontal Plane Joint Mvmts
radial deviation = move toward radial styloid ulnar deviation = move toward ulnar styloid

18 Frontal Plane Joint Mvmts
L/R lateral bending = bend trunk to L/R

19 Transverse Plane Movements

20 Transverse Plane Joint Mvmts
L/R rotation = anterior surface movement about longitudinal axis medial rotation = anterior surface rotates medially lateral rotation = anterior surface rotates laterally

21 Transverse Plane Joint Mvmts
supination = rotate thumb laterally pronation = rotate thumb medially

22 Transverse Plane Joint Mvmts
horizontal adduction = move towards midline in transverse plane horizontal abduction = move away from midline in transverse plane

23 Circumduction = Flexion + Abduction + Adduction + Extension

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