Presentation on theme: "James I belief in “divine right of kings”"— Presentation transcript:
1James I belief in “divine right of kings” King of Scotland; son of Mary “Queen of Scots”Archbishop Laud tried to impose Catholic-style ritual; Puritans dismayed. King claimed “no bishop, no king” to Puritan’s demand to end bishop control. Monarchy plagued by lack of revenue (expensive wars of Elizabeth I drained treasury--defeating the Armada was spendy)
2Charles I ( )sought to rule without Parliament and to control the Anglican Church
3Petition of Right, 1628:Parliament attempt to bribe king (taxes) in return for accepting Parliament’s rightsto tax,habeas corpus,no quartering, andno martial law in peacetime
4More Charles I Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629; did not reconvene until 1640 (Eleven Years of Tyranny) Religious persecution most important reason for civil war: led by Archbishop Laud
5Long Parliamentsummoned in 1640 (after failure of 2-month “Short Parliament”) In return for granting taxation, Parliament made demands:certain high leaders be tried: Laud eventually executed Star Chamber abolished Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its consentCalled every three years
6The English Civil War (aka Puritan Revolution; Great Rebellion) – 1642-1649 The protagonists:In this corner, the champions:Cavaliers: supported the king ROYALIST LOYALISTSIn this corner the challengers:Roundheads, Puritans opposed king; Oliver Cromwell led “New Model Army”
7FUN FACTS TO KNOW AND TELL Battle of Naseby: Final major battle of war; Scottish Army assisted Cromwell Division resulted between Presbyterians in Parliament (majority) and soldiers who were independent.
8MORE FUN FACTS“Rump Parliament”: Pride’s Purge removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament Charles I beheaded in 1649CROMWELL giggled???
9Interregnum: 1649-1660 rule without king The Commonwealth ( ): a republic – abolished monarch and House of LordsThe Protectorate ( ), Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector (Dictatorship)
10The Restoration ( ) Parliament in 1660 reelected according to old franchise: Anglicans back in powerCharles II “The Merry Monarch” ( )Stuarts restored to the throne Declaration of Breda: Charles agreed to abide by Parliament’s demands
11Habeas Corpus Act (1679): no arbitrary arrest and speedy trial The Clarendon Code, 1661: Anglicans excluded Dissenters (Puritans) from politics. (and other non-Conformists)Declaration of Indulgence, 1672: Charles II granted free worship to non-conformist Protestants. Parliament thought it was a back-door Catholic moveTest Act of 1673: all officeholders must take communion in Anglican Church Was Anglican Parliament response to Declaration of Indulgence James II passes another Act of Indulgence. Religious tolerance for all. No mention of Anglican Church remaining state religion. One of the grievances against him in Glorious Rev. Habeas Corpus Act (1679): no arbitrary arrest and speedy trial
12The Restoration… Parliament was split and fragmented into two factions Tories: king’s supporters, nobles Whigs: middle-class and merchants; also high aristocracyScotland gained its independence in 1660 as result of Restoration Charles attempted to impose Anglicanism in Scotland; war resulted James II ( ): sought to Catholicize England; forced to abdicate
13Glorious Revolution (1688) William III (William of Orange) and Mary: Protestantism secured in England Act of Toleration: granted religious freedom (except to Catholics, Jews, and Unitarians)Bill of Rights (1689): constitutional monarchy British Constitution: consisted of habeas corpus act, petition of right, and bill of rights Act of Settlement (1701): only Anglican could succeed to the throne
14LAST ONE…John Locke, Two Treatises on Government: philosophical argument for supremacy of Parliament. Not a democratic doc.