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James I belief in “divine right of kings”

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1 James I belief in “divine right of kings”
King of Scotland; son of Mary “Queen of Scots” Archbishop Laud tried to impose Catholic-style ritual; Puritans dismayed.      King claimed “no bishop, no king” to Puritan’s demand to end bishop control.                           Monarchy plagued by lack of revenue (expensive wars of Elizabeth I drained treasury--defeating the Armada was spendy)

2 Charles I ( ) sought to rule without Parliament and to control the Anglican Church

3 Petition of Right, 1628: Parliament attempt to bribe king (taxes) in return for accepting Parliament’s rights to tax, habeas corpus, no quartering, and no martial law in peacetime 

4 More Charles I Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629;
did not reconvene until 1640  (Eleven Years of Tyranny)                         Religious persecution most important reason for civil war: led by Archbishop Laud

5 Long Parliament summoned in 1640 (after failure of 2-month “Short Parliament”)             In return for granting taxation, Parliament made demands: certain high leaders be tried: Laud eventually executed  Star Chamber abolished                           Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its consent Called every three years

6 The English Civil War (aka Puritan Revolution; Great Rebellion) – 1642-1649
The protagonists: In this corner, the champions: Cavaliers: supported the king  ROYALIST LOYALISTS In this corner the challengers: Roundheads, Puritans opposed king; Oliver Cromwell led “New Model Army”

Battle of Naseby: Final major battle of war; Scottish Army assisted Cromwell  Division resulted between Presbyterians in Parliament (majority) and soldiers who were independent.   

8 MORE FUN FACTS “Rump Parliament”: Pride’s Purge removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament  Charles I beheaded in 1649 CROMWELL giggled???

9 Interregnum: 1649-1660 rule without king
                   The Commonwealth ( ): a republic – abolished monarch and House of Lords The Protectorate ( ), Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector (Dictatorship)

10 The Restoration  ( )             Parliament in 1660 reelected according to old franchise: Anglicans back in power Charles II “The Merry Monarch” ( ) Stuarts restored to the throne  Declaration of Breda: Charles agreed to abide by Parliament’s demands

11 Habeas Corpus Act (1679): no arbitrary arrest and speedy trial
The Clarendon Code, 1661: Anglicans excluded Dissenters (Puritans) from politics. (and other non-Conformists) Declaration of Indulgence, 1672: Charles II granted free worship to non-conformist Protestants. Parliament thought it was a back-door Catholic move Test Act of 1673: all officeholders must take communion in Anglican Church  Was Anglican Parliament response to Declaration of Indulgence     James II passes another Act of Indulgence. Religious tolerance for all. No mention of Anglican Church remaining state religion. One of the  grievances against him in Glorious Rev.                      Habeas Corpus Act (1679): no arbitrary arrest and speedy trial

12 The Restoration… Parliament was split and fragmented into two factions
Tories: king’s supporters, nobles       Whigs: middle-class and merchants; also high aristocracy Scotland gained its independence in 1660 as result of Restoration  Charles attempted to impose Anglicanism in Scotland; war resulted  James II ( ): sought to Catholicize England; forced to abdicate

13 Glorious Revolution (1688)
William III (William of Orange) and Mary: Protestantism secured in England      Act of Toleration: granted religious freedom (except to Catholics, Jews, and Unitarians) Bill of Rights (1689): constitutional monarchy             British Constitution: consisted of habeas corpus act, petition of right, and bill of rights             Act of Settlement (1701): only Anglican could succeed to the throne

14 LAST ONE… John Locke, Two Treatises on Government: philosophical argument for supremacy of Parliament. Not a democratic doc.

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