7James I [r. 1603-1625] Wanted absolute power. Quickly alienated Parliament & Puritans.Problems he faced:Large royal debt.He wasn’t English didn’t understand customs & law!Believed in Divine Right of Kings.Pro-Catholic sympathies.Clashed with ParliamentHe raised money without Parliament’s consent!
9Charles I [r. 1625-1649] Pro-ceremonies, rituals and pro-catholic. Uniformity of church services imposed. Anglican Book of Common Prayer for both England AND Scotland.Constantly at war with Spain and France and need £!Parliament denied funds.Wanted to stop Star ChamberHe agrees to sign Petition of Rights (1628) to get money, but ignores it!!!!He dissolved Parliament
10The “Short” Parliament Calls Parliament back after 20 yrs.Rebellion in ScotlandCharles need £ war with France & ScotlandThey demanded more civil libertiesCharles dismisses them after 3 weeks.Charles I by Van Dyck (1633)
11The “Long” Parliament In session from 1640 to 1660. Triennial Act passed Parliament must be called in session at least once every 3 years and can’t be adjourned without its own consent!Charles tries to arrest 5 MPs unsuccessfulThe Civil War has begun!!!!
12The Civil War( )What will be the most important lesson that comes out of the civil war?
13Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) Civil War ( )Royalists (Cavaliers)Parliamentarians (Roundheads)House of LordsN & W EnglandAristocracyLarge landownersChurch officialsMore ruralHouse of CommonsS & E EnglandPuritansMerchantsTownspeopleMore urban
14Playskool Version of the English Civil War RoundheadsCavaliers
15Oliver Cromwell [ ]Officer of the Parliamentary army the New Model Army.Led the army that defeated royal forces and now controlled the government.He wore…a plain cloth-suit, which seemed to have been made by a poor tailor; his shirt was plain, and not very clean; and I remember a speck or two of blood upon his collar…his face was swollen and red, his voice sharp and untunable, and his speech full of passion. [Sir Philip Warwick, a Royalist, 1640]
19The “Interregnum” Period [1649-1660] The Commonwealth ( )The Protectorate ( )
20Pride’s Purge, 1648Cromwell purges the House of Commons of moderates (anyone not anti-monarchy).The results is the “Rump” Parliament.
21Regicide Beheading of Charles I, 1649 The vote by the Rump Parliament was
22The Puritan Commonwealth [1649-1653] Cromwell rules with the Rump Parliament.Constitutional RepublicCreated a constitution Instrument of GovernmentAn executive [Cromwell]No monarch.Europe is appalled other nations don’t recognize it.
23Cromwell Dissolves the “Rump” Parliament in 1653
24The Protectorate [1653-1660] Cromwell tears up Constitution. Dismisses the Rump Parliament.Declares martial law.Military dictator.Religious tolerance, except Catholics.Crushes a rebellion in Scotland.Crushes a rebellion among the Catholics of Ireland kills 40% of all ethnic Irish!
25Cromwell—Lord Protector or King?? England longs for an end to martial law!Cromwell dies in 1658 and his son, Richard, takes over, but is weak and lasts for only two years.
26The Restoration( )Parliament could no more exist without the Crown than the Crown without Parliament. This was the most important lesson of the English Civil War!
27King Charles II [r ]Had charm, poise, & political skills [unlike his father].Restored the entertainement.Favored religious toleration.Disbanded the Puritan army and pardoned most rebels.Act of Uniformity- Clergy must use the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. (1662)
30King Charles II [r. 1660-1685] 1673 Test Act Allows only Anglicans for government and military positions.1670 Treaty of Dover saying he will accept money from France if he converts to Catholicism, when possibleTo Charles II, Louis XIV is an ideal ally against the Dutch.
31King James II [r ]Outright Catholic without any of Charles II’s shrewdness or ability to rule and compromise.Alienated EVERYONE!Provoked the problems Charles II avoided!Introduced Catholics into the High Command of military and as personal advisors.Kept an army outside of London.Claimed the power to suspend with Acts of Parliament.
33The “Glorious” Revolution: 1688 Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James II’s daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange.He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV.He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.
34English Bill of Rights  Settled issues between King & ParliamentModel for the U. S. Bill of RightsFormed a base for increasing civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.Main provisions:The King could not suspend the laws.The King could not interfere with justice.No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent.Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.The monarch must be a Protestant.Religious toleration.Prime Minister Positions are created (Walpole)