2 Church Reform and the Crusades The Catholic Church launches Crusades against Muslims.
3 Chronology The First Crusade: 1147-1148 The Second Crusade: 1147-1148 Salahuddin Regains Jerusalem: 1187Third Crusade:Fourth Crusade: (Sacking Constantinople)Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but failChildren’s Crusade: 1212Spanish Crusade: (Inquisition)
4 Reform and Church Organization Starting in the 1100s, popes reorganize the Church like a kingdomPope’s advisors make Church laws; diplomats travel throughout EuropeChurch collects tithes; uses money to care for sick or poor“Peasants paying tithes” (17th century) school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger
5 The Crusades: The Beginning 1093 Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos who asked Pope Urban II for help (left)In 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the TurksPope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade—a “holy war”Artistic depiction of Pope Urban II (left), and him preaching the First Crusade (right)
6 Goals of the Crusades Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem Kings use Crusades to send away knights who cause troubleYounger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting (although historian Rodney Stark in God’s Battalions: The Case for the Crusades disagrees with that theory because the first three crusades were led by the heads of the royal families of Europe).Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade.
8 First Crusade:Pope promises Crusaders who die a place in heavenFirst Crusade: three armies gather at Constantinople in 1097Crusaders capture Jerusalem in 1099Captured lands along coast divided into four Crusader states
9 People’s Crusade/ First Crusade Peter the Hermit went around preaching and asked people to march with him to Jerusalem. Majority of the people were unarmed. Most of them died and they turned back.Meanwhile an army formed in South France.Count Raymond led the volunteers from Provence France.Godfrey of Bouillon led the Rhine lands.Normandy was led by William, Robert the conquror’s son.Northern Italy was led by Bohemond.
10 JerusalemThe reason of the first crusade was to regain the Holy land and Jerusalem from the Muslims
12 Second Crusade:Left: an artistic representation of SaladinMuslims take back Edessa in 1144; Second crusade fails to retake itIn 1187, Saladin—Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior—retakes JerusalemRight: Saladin the Victorious by Gustave Dore
13 2nd CrusadeEveryone went to Constantinople on their own time. The army left with 700,000 men and 100,000 were knights. They went down the Mediterranean coast. One of the battles on the way to Jerusalem was the siege of Antioch. They lost 75% of their men in Antioch. When they finally reached Jerusalem, the army failed to take Jerusalem on the first attempt but succeeded on the second. Once in Jerusalem they killed the majority of the Muslims there and they looted all the houses.
14 The Second Crusade The Second Crusade took place between 1145-1149 It was formally announced by PopeEugene IIIWas the first Crusade to be led by European Kings from France and Germany
15 The Second Crusade Downfall With this ill advised attack on the city of Damascus, the crusaders lost a lot of men and it was a huge success for the MuslimsThis ultimately gave key influenceto the fall of Jerusalem and giverise to the third Crusade in the 12th century
16 Saladin (Salahuddin): 1187 In 1187, Saladin—Muslim leader and Kurdish warrior—retakes JerusalemAbove: an artistic representation of SaladinLeft: Saladin the Victorious by Gustave Dore
18 The Third Crusade:The Third Crusade was led by three powerful rulersFrederick I “Barbarossa” of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany)Phillip II of FranceRichard I of England—”The Lion-Hearted”
19 The Third Crusade One is Richard the Lion-Hearted (king of England) The Robin Hood stories and legends often surround Richard I returning from the Third Crusade.19th-century portrait of Richard by Merry-Joseph Blondel
20 The Third CrusadePhillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with RichardThe argument was over Richard breaking off an engagement with Phillip’s sister.
21 The Third CrusadeFrederick I of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) drowns during the journeyAbove: A depiction of Frederick I drowning in the Saleph River in Turkey from the Saxon Chronicle.
22 The Third CrusadeIn 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battlesSaladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter the city
23 THE THIRD CRUSADE Lasted between 1189-1192 It was also known as the kings CrusadeThe Crusade was an attempt to take back the holy land, it was largely successful but fell short of its final goal
24 The Fourth Crusade The Crusading Spirit Dwindles The Crusading Spirit DwindlesCrusaders sack Constantinople in 1204
25 The Crusading Spirit Dwindles: The Later Crusades Fourth Crusade ( )Crusaders sack the Christian city Zara and are excommunicated by the pope for it.The Venetian leadership keeps their excommunication a secret. Then Crusaders sack Constantinople in 1204Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken the MuslimsLooting of Constantinople, painting by Eugene Delacroix, 1840
26 The Children’s Crusade 1212In 1212 thousands of children possibly die or are enslaved in a failed crusade.
27 The Children’s Crusade The traditional story says that in 1212 thousands of children possibly die or are enslaved in a failed crusade.But these stories are surrounded by legend and fiction. The fact that this really happened is disputed.The Children’s Crusade by Gustave DoréThis event may very well merely be a legend embellished over time.
28 Two Stories about the Children’s Crusade Leader: NicholasCountry: GermanyPurpose: intended to lead a crusade to convert the Muslims to Christianity by the preaching of children. Nicholas promised a miracle that the waters of the Mediterranean would divide so they could walk to the Holy Land.Result: A following of about 7,000 people, both adults and children arrive in Genoa, Italy after preaching a crusade throughout Germany and crossing the Alps. The waters did not divide. The movement continues to Rome but begins to break up. The Pope instructs the group to return home. Nicholas does not survive the return home.Leader: StephenCountry: FrancePurpose: He claims Jesus appeared to him and gave him a letter for the king of France.Result: Phillip II, king of France is unimpressed. Stephen, however, continues to preach and tries to lead a group to Marseilles. It seems like many surviving youths returned to their families.
29 Christians fight: Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain, 1100-1492 The Spanish CrusadeChristians fight: Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain,
30 A Spanish Crusade Most of Spain controlled by Muslim people Christians fight: Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain,Spain has Inquisition—court to suppress heresy; expels non-ChristiansInquisition scene of people accused of heresy being tortured.
31 The Effects of the Crusades Crusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fightWomen who stay home manage the estate and business affairsMerchants expand trade, bring back many goods from Southwest AsiaFailure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kingsCrusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians