Presentation on theme: "14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims."— Presentation transcript:
14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims.
The Age of Faith Spiritual Revival – Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival – Reformers help restore and expand Church power Founded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny as it looked in Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keys in saltire the wards upwards and outwards or overall a sword in pale argent".
Problems in the Church Some Church officials marry even though the Church objects Some officials practice simony—selling religious offices Kings use lay investiture to appoint bishops Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops
Reform and Church Organization Starting in the 1100s, popes reorganize the Church like a kingdom Pope’s advisors make Church laws; diplomats travel throughout Europe Church collects tithes; uses money to care for sick or poor “Peasants paying tithes” (17 th century) school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Cathedrals—Cities of God Early Cathedrals – Between , churches are built in Romanesque style – Style includes thick walls and pillars, small windows, round arches
A New Style of Church Architecture Gothic style evolves around 1100; term from Germanic tribe, Goths Gothic style has large, tall windows for more light; pointed arches Churches have stained glass windows, many sculptures About 500 Gothic churches are built from 1170 to 1270
Gothic Architecture The master builders in France, where the Gothic style originated, developed techniques of structural engineering that were key to Gothic architecture: 1.ribbed vaults that supported the roof’s weight 2.flying buttresses that transferred weight to thick, exterior walls 3.pointed arches that framed huge stained glass windows 4.tall spires that seemed to be pointing to heaven
Traditional Church Floor Plan “Liturgical East” Source: (http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm) a website explaining church architecture.http://www.hope.evangelical-lutheran.ca/glossary.htm
The Crusades: The Beginning In 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help fighting the Turks Pope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade—a “holy war” Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos who asked Pope Urban II for help (left) Artistic depiction of Pope Urban II (left), and him preaching the First Crusade (right)
Goals of the Crusades Pope - Reclaim Jerusalem Patriarch – eliminate Muslims Both - Reunite Christianity (but on whose terms?) Kings - send away knights who cause trouble Younger sons -earn land or win glory by fighting Merchants (later) - gain wealth through trade. Warriors - promised a place in Heaven
Knights: Warriors on Horseback The Technology of Warfare Changes – Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle heavy weapons – In 700s, mounted knights become most important part of an army
Armour Chainmail Plate Armour Gambeson, a padded jacket worn alone or in combination with chainmail
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry The Code of Chivalry – The Church insists – By 1100s knights obey a code of chivalry—a set of ideals on how to act – They are to protect weak and poor; serve feudal lord, God, chosen lady "Stitching the Standard" by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry A Knight’s Training – Boys begin to train for knighthood at age 7; usually knighted at 21 – Knights gain experience in local wars and tournaments— mock battles
Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry Brutal Reality of Warfare – Castles are huge fortresses where lords live – Attacking armies use wide range of strategies and weapons
Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland is surrounded by a moat.
Leeds Castle, England
Counterweight trebuchet at Château des Baux, France
Medieval mangonel, a type of catapult
Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France
Medieval moveable siege tower
Early Crusades: 1 st ( ) - Crusaders capture most of the Holy Land, including Jerusalem in 1099 (Kingdom of Jerusalem), but cannot hold it 2 nd ( ): Crusaders fails to retake it In 1187, Saladin—Muslim leader— retakes Jerusalem
The Third Crusade : Led mostly by Richard the Lion- Hearted—king of England The time of Robin Hood 19th-century portrait of Richard by Merry-Joseph Blondel
The Third Crusade : In 1192 Richard realizes that no matter how many times he takes Jerusalem, the Muslim will always reconquer it. He and Saladin make peace after many battles Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter the city
The Later Crusades are in effective Fourth Crusade ( ) – Crusaders sack the Christian city Zara and are excommunicated by the pope for it. – The Venetian leadership keeps their excommunication a secret. Then Crusaders sack Constantinople in 1204 Two other Crusades strike Egypt, but fail to weaken the Muslims Looting of Constantinople, painting by Eugene Delacroix, 1840
The Children’s Crusade The traditional story says that in 1212 thousands of “boys” possibly die or are enslaved in a failed crusade. But the use of the word “Boys” doesn’t necessarily mean children. The Children’s Crusade by Gustave Doré This event may very well merely be a legend embellished over time.
A Spanish Crusade Most of Spain controlled by Moors, a Muslim people Christians fight Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain, Spain has Inquisition— court to suppress heresy; expels non- Christians Inquisition scene of people accused of heresy being tortured.
The Effects of the Crusades Crusades show power of Church in convincing thousands to fight Women who stay home manage the estate and business affairs Merchants expand trade, bring back many goods from Southwest Asia Crusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians Failure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kings MAYBE, MAYBE NOT