Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e"— Presentation transcript:

1 Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e
Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development Meredyth Fellows, West Chester University of PA




5 Attachment: The Basic Life Bond
History Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment need Believed “maternal reinforcing stimulus” created infant’s need to be close to caregiver John Watson, strict ____________ Video

6 Attachment: History Ethologists: early evolutionary psychologists
_____________(1935): research with goslings “biologically programmed attachment response”

7 Attachment: History Harry Harlow (1959) Experiment with monkeys
Refuted behaviorists ideas Contact comfort important to bonding Video 1 Video 2 John Bowlby (’69, ’73, ’80) Primary attachment figure _________________________________________

8 Attachment Response Bowlby (’69, ’73) (Video)
Critical period for attachment response Proximity-seeking behavior—activated by threats to survival at any age Threats may be activated by our internal state Threats may be evoked by external world dangers Attachment Theory-Video

9 Attachment Milestones
Pre-attachment Stage—birth to 3 mos. Reflex dominated time 2 months, social smile (example of automatic reflex, not in response to attachment figure) Social smile evokes care and love

10 Attachment Milestones, cont’d
Attachment in the making—4 to 7 mos. Slight preference for caregivers, but still respond to everyone Clear-cut (focused) attachment—7 to 8 mos. Stranger-anxiety and separation anxiety appear Social-referencing

11 The Strange Situation: Mary Ainsworth Video
Measures individual variations in attachment response during “clear-cut” stage Planned separations and reunions of child and primary caregiver

12 Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles
___________ Attached Child uses primary caregiver as a secure base from which to explore Child reacts with joy upon caregiver’s return Video

13 Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles
Insecurely Attached Avoidant Appear detached; indifferent upon mother’s return ______________________ Clingy, fearful, fear of exploration Severe distress when mother leaves; contradictory emotions upon return; often inconsolable __________________________ Bizarre behaviors; may freeze, look frightened, may flee Often result of abuse

14 Attachment: The Caregiver
Insecurely attached babies may have parents who are: Overly intrusive Misread signals Depressed Slower to react to baby’s cues

15 Attachment and Child’s Temperament
Easy Slow to Warm-up Difficult Baby’s temperament and quality of caregiving will determine attachment style

16 Attachment: Summary Early life is sensitive period for attachment (not critical period) Attachment may change over time Forces influencing attachment styles: Nurture provided by primary caregiver Infant’s temperament Other environmental forces

17 Settings for Development Poverty in the United States
___________________________ (Federal government definition) An income levels that allows a household to pay for shelter, food, and clothing, with a small amount left over. ___________(Child Advocates’ term) The real minimum income it takes for a family to decently make ends meet in the U.S.

18 Poverty in the U.S.: Statistics
Federal government: 1 out of every 5 children Low income criterion, 43% Poverty most common during child’s first 5 years of life Single motherhood Inadequate wages

19 Poverty and Development
Strong negative impact on academic performance Less access to quality preschools, enriching toys, trips to museums Health-compromising conditions at birth (e.g. low birth weight) Stressed, low-income mothers may have less patience with irritable infants/children Crowded living and unsafe environment

20 Toddlerhood: Erik Erikson’s Age of Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt

21 Toddlerhood: 1-2 years Task of toddlerhood: to be autonomous selves
Understanding of “self” and self-conscious emotions appear May feel proud or ashamed Need to explore Erikson’s negative outcome: _________________

22 Do Shy and Exuberant Children Differ Dramatically in Self-Control?
Research demonstrates: Toddlers at the high end of the fearless, joyous, and angry continuum show less “___________” at age 4 These toddlers’ exuberant impulses are difficult to dampen Does power assertion work when disciplining? Better to redirect behavior and provide positive reinforcement

23 Guidelines for Socialization according to Temperament
Shy Do not overprotect Gently expose to new situations _______________ Develop strong attachment bond Resist power assertion


Download ppt "Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google