Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond  History  Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond  History  Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development

2 Attachment: The Basic Life Bond  History  Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment need  Believed “maternal reinforcing stimulus” created infant’s need to be close to caregiver  John Watson, strict behaviorist  Appeared hostile to the idea of attachment  Crusaded against the dangers of “too much” mother love

3 Attachment: History Harry Harlow (1958) ▫ Experiment with monkeys  Separated babies from mothers at birth  Found that contact comfort was important to bonding John Bowlby (late 1960’s)) ▫ Conducted clinical work with children who were hospitalized and separated from their mothers ▫ Promoted idea that a primary attachment figure is crucial to healthy development Harlow: Baby monkeys clung to the cloth-covered mother

4 Exploring the Attachment Response  Bowlby’s evolutionary-based theory  Human beings have a critical period during the first year when the attachment response is programmed to emerge.  Proximity-seeking behavior—a survival response activated by threats occurring at any age  Two categories for threats to survival  May be activated by our internal state  May be evoked by dangers in the external world

5 Attachment Phases  Pre-attachment Phase—birth to 3 months  Reflex dominated time  2 months, social smile (example of automatic reflex, not in response to attachment figure)  Social smile evokes care and love

6 Attachment Phases, continued  Attachment in the making—4 to 7 months Slight preference for caregivers, but still responds to everyone  Clear-cut (focused) attachment—7 to 8 months Stranger-anxiety and separation anxiety appear Social referencing

7 Attachment Phases Working Model phase— ▫ About age 3, child develops cognitive inner representation of attachment figure. ▫ When child is under stress, the need to make contact is very important. ▫ Responsive caregiver will fortify attachment bond.

8 The Strange Situation: Mary Ainsworth  Measures individual variations in attachment response during “clear-cut” stage  Planned separations and reunions of child and primary caregiver

9 Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles  Securely Attached  Child uses primary caregiver as a secure base from which to explore  Child reacts with joy upon caregiver’s return

10 Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles  Insecurely Attached Avoidant  Appears detached; indifferent upon mother’s return Anxious-Ambivalent  Clingy, fearful, fear of exploration  Severe distress when mother leaves; contradictory emotions upon return; often inconsolable Disorganized  Bizarre behaviors; may freeze, look frightened, may flee  Often result of abuse

11 The Attachment Dance  Synchrony  Caregiver and infant respond emotionally to each other in a sensitive, attuned way  Ainsworth & Bowlby—parent’s sensitivity to baby’s signals are foundation for secure attachment

12 Attachment and Child’s Temperament  Temperament— characteristic behavioral style of approaching the world  Easy  Slow to Warm-up  Difficult  Baby’s temperament and quality of caregiving will influence attachment style.

13 Infant Attachment—Does It Predict Later Development? Bowlby ▫ Inner working model of attachment determines how we relate to others and feel about ourselves. ▫ Research supports this model. Caution! ▫ Attachment styles can change over time!  Life stress may change attachment from secure to insecure.  Responsive caregiving can change attachment from insecure to secure!

14 Settings for Development Poverty in the United States  Poverty (Federal government definition)  An income level that allows a household to pay for shelter, food, and clothing, with a small amount left over.  In 2009, more than 1 in 4 children under age 6 was living under the poverty line (see chart).  Low Income  Those earning within 200% of the poverty line.  In 2009, 1 in 2 (44%) children


16 Poverty and Development: Research Findings  During childhood, poverty may compromise health (e.g., low birth weight, stressed mother).  Poverty may have long-term educational impact.  Poverty during first 4 years of life makes it statistically less likely for a child to graduate from high school.  May enter school “left behind”  Less access to quality preschools, enriching toys, trips to museums  Less concrete breathing space to learn (e.g., substandard housing; dangerous neighborhood)

17 Erik Erikson’s Age of Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt

18 Psychosocial Development 1-2 years  to be autonomous selves  Understanding of “self” and self-conscious emotions appear  May feel proud or ashamed  Need to explore  negative outcome: Shame and Doubt

19 Socialization  The process by which children are taught to obey the norms of society and to behave in socially appropriate ways  Self-regulation is difficult at age 2.  Improves dramatically from age 2 to 4


21 Goodness-of-Fit: an ideal parenting strategy  Arrange your child’s environment to suit his/her temperamental style.  Minimize vulnerabilities.  Accentuate strengths.

Download ppt "Chapter 4: Infancy: Socioemotional Development. Attachment: The Basic Life Bond  History  Behaviorists (Watson, Skinner) minimized human attachment."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google