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Psychosocial Development During the First Three Years Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychosocial Development During the First Three Years Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychosocial Development During the First Three Years Chapter 8

2 First Appearance of Basic Emotions Happiness Smile – from birth Social smile – 6 to 10 weeks Laugh – 3–4 months Anger General distress – from birth Anger – 4–6 months Sadness Distress to “still face” – 2 – 7 mos. Fear First fears – 6 – 12 months Stranger Anxiety – 8 – 12 months

3 Understanding Emotions of Others Emotional Contagion  Early infancy Recognize Other’s Facial Expressions  7 – 10 months Social Referencing - Understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking out another person’s perception of it  Babies look at their caregivers upon encountering a new person or toy

4 Self-Conscious Emotions  Shame  Embarrassment  Guilt  Envy  Pride Emerge middle of second year Need adult instruction about when to feel them

5 Emotional Self-Regulation Young infants rely in caregivers to soothe them. Self-regulation grows over fist year, with brain development. Caregivers contribute to child’s self- regulation style.

6 Developmental Issues in Infancy Developing Trust  According to Erikson (1950), early experiences are the key  trust vs. mistrust  Sensitive, responsive, consistent caregiving develops trust

7 TEMPERAMENT The foundation of personality…

8 Structure of Temperament Kagan – Infant’s temperament video  Easy – 40%  Difficult – 10%  Slow-to-warm-up – 15%  Unclassified – 35%

9 Genetics and Environment in Temperament Genetic Influences Responsible for about half of individual differences Ethnicity, gender Environmental Influences Cultural caregiving styles Boys & girls treated differently Parents emphasize sibling differences Goodness Of Fit Combines genetics and environment Goal is to create environments that recognize temp & encourage more active functioning

10 Developmental Issues in Infancy Developing Attachments – video (Bowlby & Ainsworth)  Secure attachment: baby cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and greets the caregiver happily upon his or her return  Avoidant attachment: baby rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact upon his or her return  Ambivalent (resistant) attachment: baby becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return

11 Bowlby’s Ethological Theory of Attachment Recognizes the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival (4 phases) 1. Preattachment 2. Attachment-in-the-making 3. Clear-cut attachment Separation anxiety 4. Formation of a reciprocal relationship*VIDEOS*

12 Measuring the Security of Attachment Secure – 65% Avoidant – 20% Resistant – 10% Disorganized- disoriented – 5–10%

13 Cultural Variations in Attachment Security

14 Factors that Affect Attachment Security Opportunity for attachment Quality of caregiving  Interactional synchrony Infant characteristics Family circumstances Parents’ internal working models

15 Multiple Attachments Fathers Siblings Grandparents Professional caregivers

16 Factors that Affect Attachment of Children in Child Care Initial Attachment Quality Family Circumstances Quality of Child Care  Developmentally Appropriate Practice Extent of Child Care

17 Attachment and Later Development Secure attachment related to positive outcomes in:  Preschool  Middle childhood Continuity of caregiving may link infant attachment and later development.

18 Contact With Other Children Siblings  Rivalry is often present, as is affection  The more securely attached siblings are to their parents, the better they get along with each other

19 Contact With Other Children Sociability With Nonsiblings  Some children are more sociable than others, due to such temperamental traits as mood, readiness to accept new people, and ability to adapt to change

20 Children of Working Parents Effects of Parental Employment  Maternal employment benefits children in low-income families by increasing the family's resources  One longitudinal study showed negative effects on cognitive development at 15 months to 3 years when mothers went to work 30 or more hours a week by a child’s ninth month

21 Children of Working Parents The Impact Of Early Child Care  Most important element in the quality of care is the caregiver; stimulating interactions with responsive adults are crucial to early cognitive, linguistic, and psychosocial development


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