2EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Basic emotions, such as happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust, are directly inferred from facial expressions.An emotion or affect that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, or behavioral expression
3What is the emotional state of this baby What is the emotional state of this baby? Carroll Izard’s MAX System can be used to code
4Emotions emerge in sequence Social smileEvoked by the stimulus of the human faceFirst appears between 4 and 6 weeksAnger, surprise, sadnessFirst appears around 3 to 4 months in response to active stimuli.Shame: 6 to 8 monthsContempt: 2 years
5Negative EmotionsAnger is expressed during the first months when babies cry in response to unpleasant experiences (4-6 months).Expressions of sadness are usually less frequent than anger.Fear rises during the second half of the first year.cause and effectstranger anxiety
6Why is this baby crying?Could be out of anger, pain, or unknown reasons
8Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others Emotion Contagion (birth)Social referencing (~1 year)Infant relies on a trusted person's emotional reaction in an uncertain situation.By toddlerhood, children use emotional signals to infer others’ internal states and guide their own actions.
9Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions At the end of the second year (18-24 months)Child needs to have a self-conceptInjury to or enhancement of the sense of selfEmbarassment, guilt, envy, prideHelps children to acquire values of society
10Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation Emotional self-regulation refers to the strategies used to adjust emotional states to a comfortable level of intensity.Infants have only limited capacity to regulate their emotional states.By the end of the first year, babies’ ability to move around permits them to regulate feelings more effectively by approaching or retreating from various stimuli.
12TEMPERAMENT AND DEVELOPMENT stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation.New York Longitudinal Study (Thomas & Chess, 1956) indicatesTemperament predicts adjustment.Parenting can modify emotional styles.
13Structure of Temperament Easy child (40%)Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiencesDifficult child (10%)Irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intenselySlow-to-warm-up child (15%)Inactive, shows mild reactions to stimuli, is negative, and adjusts slowly to new experiences
14Measuring Temperament Assessed throughParent interviews and questionnairesBehavior ratings by medical professionals or caregiversDirect researcher observationPhysiological measures supplement these techniques.Heart rate, hormone levels, and EEG waves in the frontal cortex differentiate children with inhibited and uninhibited temperamental styles.
15Genetic InfluencesTwin studies reveal that identicals are more similar than fraternals.About half the individual differences among us can be traced to differences in our genetic make-up.Ethnic and sex differences in early temperament exist, implying a role for heredity.
16Environmental Influences Differences in temperament are encouraged by cultural beliefs and practice.Parents encourage infant sons to be physically active and daughters to seek help and closeness.When one child in a family is viewed as easy, another is perceived as difficult.
17Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of-Fit Model Goodness-of-fit is an effective match between child-rearing environments and a child’s temperament, leading to healthy adjustment.Difficult infants are less likely than easy babies to receive sensitive care.
18Goodness-of-fit: person X environment interaction Irritable BabyParenting: Unstable StableBaby: More Fussy Less FussyParent: Poor coping Good copingToddler: Negative HappyFussy Calm
19Personality Development EriksonBasic trust versus mistrustDilemma is resolved positively if caregiving is sympathetic and loving.EriksonAutonomy versus Shame and DoubtResolved positively if parents provide suitable guidance and appropriate choices
21Personality Development Development of the SelfEmergence of the I-Self and the Me-SelfI-self—the sense of self as subject, or agent, who is separate from but acts on other objects and people.me-self—a reflective observer that considers the self an object of knowledge and evaluation (during 2nd year).Development of the me-self permits toddlers to compare themselves to other people.Self-awareness is accompanied by empathy
23What about completely obeys you? What is a relationship like in which the other person completely ignores you?What about completely obeys you?
24Emergence of Self-Control Self-control is the capacity to resist an impulse to engage in socially disapproved behavior.The first signs of self-control appear as compliance—voluntary obedience to adult requests and commands.
27Attachment theoryEmotional bonds between people have adaptive significance, develop through an interactional history, and influence personality developmentHistory: Spitz and WWII orphans; Harry Harlow and rhesus monkeys; Lorenz and his ducks; Genie and deprivation; sabre-tooth tigersBowlby: Attachment, Separation, and LossThe nature of emotional bond between the infant and the caregiver
29Young infants need caregivers for contact, security, and distress resolution Separation anxiety: distress when left aloneDistress when strangers or other threats are aroundSocial referencingCategories of infant caregiver relationships can be described from how children depend on and act within relationships
30Development of Attachment Preattachment phase (birth to 6 weeks)Signals such as smiling and crying bring the baby into close contact.“Attachment-in-the-making” phase (6 weeks to 6-8 months)Respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger
31Development of Attachment “Clearcut” attachment (6 to 8 months to 18 months to 2 years)Attachment to caregiver is evident.Separation anxiety: Upset at the departure of a familiar caregiverCaregivers provide secure base from which they can explore.
32Mary Ainsworth: Self, sensitivity, and security Strange SituationMeasures attachment between 1 and 2 yearsInvolves short separations from and reunions with the parent
33Patterns in Infancy: Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Insecure-Avoidant (A): No distress or proximity-seeking, no distinction between mother and stranger, “Detached”Secure (B): Distress resolved, proximity-seekingInsecure-Resistant (C): Distress not resolved, ambivalent proximity-seeking, “Clingy babies”Insecure-Disorganised (D): Dazed, confused, and fearful (e.g., maltreated toddlers)
34Maasi in africa: Attachment theory is cross-cultural
35Development of Attachment Formation of a reciprocal relationship (18 months to 2 years and on)Separation anxiety decreases.
36Cultural Variations German infants show more avoidant attachment. German parents encourage infants to be independent.German infants show more avoidant attachment.Japanese mothers rarely leave babies in the care of strange people.Japanese infants display more resistant attachment responses.
37Quality of CaregivingSecure infants’ mothers respond promptly to infants, are positive, and handle babies tenderly.Insecure infants’ mothers dislike contact, handle them awkwardly, and are insensitive.Avoidant infants receive caregiving that is overstimulating and intrusive.Child abuse and neglect are associated with all three forms of insecure attachment.Quality of Daycare (Howe & Jacobs, 1995):Well trained stable staff, small group size/high adult:child ratio, structured day, high emphasis on interaction
39Attachment in context Parental work status does not predict attachment Emotional adjustment of the parent (e.g., family stress and conflict) is importantQuality of non-parental care is importantRelationship quality becomes internalizes and influences later adult and romantic relationshipsAAI: Dismissing, Autonomous, Preoccupied