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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Psychodynamic Stages AgeErikson’s StageFreud’s Stage First Year Basic Trust versus Mistrust Oral Second Year Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt Anal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 First Appearance of Basic Emotions Happiness Smile – from birth Social smile – 6 to 10 weeks Laugh – 3–4 months Anger General distress – from birth Anger – 4–6 months Fear First fears – second half of first year Stranger Anxiety – 8–12 months
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Understanding Emotions of Others Emotional Contagion Early infancy Recognize Other’s Facial Expressions 7 – 10 months Social Referencing
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Conscious Emotions Shame Embarrassment Guilt Envy Pride Emerge middle of second year Need adult instruction about when to feel them
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Emotional Self-Regulation Young infants rely in caregivers to soothe them. Self-regulation grows over fist year, with brain development. Caregivers contribute to child’s self- regulation style.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Structure of Temperament Easy – 40% Difficult – 10% Slow-to-warm-up – 15% Unclassified – 35%
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Biological Basis for Temperament Inhibited, Shy React negatively, withdraw from new stimuli High heart rates, stress hormones, & stress symptoms Higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity. Uninhibited, Sociable React positively, approach new stimuli Low hear rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms Higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Genetics and Environment in Temperament Genetic Influences Responsible for about half of individual differences Ethnicity, gender Environmental Influences Cultural caregiving styles Boys & girls treated differently Parents emphasize sibling differences Goodness-of-Fit Combines genetics and environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Ethological Theory of Attachment Preattachment phase Attachment-in-the- making phase Phase of clear-cut attachment Separation anxiety Formation of a reciprocal relationship
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Measuring the Security of Attachment Secure – 65% Avoidant – 20% Resistant – 10% Disorganized- disoriented – 5–10%
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Cultural Variations in Attachment Security
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors that Affect Attachment Security Opportunity for attachment Quality of caregiving Interactional synchrony Infant characteristics Family circumstances Parents’ internal working models
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Multiple Attachments Fathers Siblings Grandparents Professional caregivers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Attachment and Later Development Secure attachment related to positive outcomes in: Preschool Middle childhood Continuity of caregiving may link infant attachment and later development.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors that Affect Attachment of Children in Child Care Initial Attachment Quality Family Circumstances Quality of Child Care Developmentally Appropriate Practice Extent of Child Care
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 I-Self and Me-Self I-Self Sense of self as agent Separate from surrounding world Can control own thoughts and actions Me-Self Sense of self as object of knowledge and evaluation Qualities that make self unique: Physical characteristics Possessions Attitudes, beliefs, personality
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Self-Control Ability to resist impulses Emerges around 18 months Improves through early childhood Individual differences are lasting: Gender Sensitive caregiving
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Compliance Understanding and obeying caregivers’ wishes and standards Emerges between 12 and 18 months Toddlers assert autonomy by sometimes not complying Warm, sensitive caregiving increases compliance
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Helping Toddlers Develop Compliance and Self-Control Respond with sensitivity and support Give advance notice of change in activities Offer many prompts and reminders Reinforce self-controlled behavior Encourage sustained attention Support language development Increase rules gradually
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BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects.
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Human Resources Administration in Education Chapter 6: Staff Development Ronald W. Rebore This multimedia product and its.
Developmental Psychology General overview of Theories of Developmental Psychology.
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared.
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 10 Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Nurturing the Developing Brain in Early Childhood Lisa Freund, Ph.D. The National Institutes of Health The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of.
What is your understanding of Attachment An emotional bond ( between care giver and care receiver) A lasting psychological connection between human beings.
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