Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Entering the Social World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5: Entering the Social World Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early ChildhoodDEP 2004Spring 2011
2 Guiding Questions:What are the early stages of psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson?What is an attachment according to John Bowlby and how does it develop?How is early attachment quality measured?How does early attachment quality influence us?How do young children experience emotions?How do young children play?
4 Erikson’s Early Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustInfancy (Birth to 1 year)Goal to obtain hope—healthy balance between openness and cautionResponsive, reliable parentsBasic needs metProtection from harmInfrequent times when needs cannot be immediately met can help to promote a balance
5 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1 – 3 yearsGoal to obtain will—healthy understanding that we can intentionally cause things to happen in the worldBegin to use language to express their own desiresAllow children some choices
6 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt 3 – 5 yearsGoal to obtain purpose— healthy balance between individual interests and the interests of othersAllow so responsibility and freedomEmphasize that actions affect other people tooTalk about emotions of the child and others
7 Growth of AttachmentEvolutionary Psychology - theoretical view that human behaviors represent successful adaptations to the environment“Father of attachment theory”—John BowlbyAttachment - enduring socioemotional relationship between infants and caregivers
8 Stages of AttachmentParents often begin the process of attachment when they learn they will have a child.Preattachment (Birth to about 2 months)Attachment in the making (2 – 6 months)True attachment (6 – 18 months)Reciprocal relationships (18 months and up)
9 The Special Role of Fathers Can also be attachment figuresChildren can form multiple attachmentsJoy is often important in father-child relationshipsFathers also able to provide comfort in times of distress
10 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test: Key Points of Interest for Secure Attachments in Infants Exploration of toysSocial referencingSome separation distressAbility to be soothed relatively quicklyJoy upon reunion & proximity seeking behaviorsAbility to return to exploration of toys
11 Classifications of Attachment Quality Secure Attachment% of US infantsStrong bond, high quality relationshipAvoidant Attachment20% of US infantsUsed to being alone or caregiver may be overwhelming to the infantLittle separation distress & joy upon reunionResistant Attachment10 – 15% of US infantsAnxious, fearful, not easily calmedDisorganized (disoriented) Attachment5 – 10& of US infantsConfusion or disconnection
12 Video Illustration & In-Class Activity! Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
13 What Determines Quality of Attachment Parenting behaviors & mental healthChild’s temperamentAttachment contributes to an infant’s…Internal Working ModelInfant’s understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is; thought to influence close relationships throughout the child’s life
14 The Impact of Work and Childcare on Attachment Quality See page 179:Low teacher-child ratioTrained, experienced staff with a knowledge of child developmentLow turnover!Stimulating environmentEffective partnership between parent and childcare providersCheck with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) at to see if the center is certified.
15 Experiencing and Expression Emotions Basic Emotions: emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elementsa subjective feelinga physiological changean overt behavior
16 Measuring EmotionsFacial expressions are strong indicators of emotionsSome evidence we are biologically programmed to express basic emotionsSimilarities between adults’ and infants’ expressions of emotions
17 Development of Basic Emotions Social Smiles - smile that infants produce when they see a human faceStranger Wariness - first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults
18 Complex Emotions & Later Developments Not universally expressed in similar waysVarious experiences contribute to emotionsCultural context plays a large role in emotional expression
19 Recognizing and Using Other’s Emotions Social ReferencingBehavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation
20 Learning to Regulate Emotions Children develop various strategiesOver time, children learn ways to appropriately express emotionsChildren learn to mask some emotions as they ageAttachment figures can aid in emotion regulation
21 Interacting with Others Parallel Play - when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is goingSimple Social Play - play that begins at months; toddlers engage in similar activities as well as talk and smile at each otherCooperative Play - play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins around 2 years
22 Gender Differences in Play Enabling Actions - typical in girls; individual’s actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interactionConstricting Actions - typical in boys; interaction in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other
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