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Chapter 5: Entering the Social World

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1 Chapter 5: Entering the Social World
Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood DEP 2004 Spring 2011

2 Guiding Questions: What are the early stages of psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson? What is an attachment according to John Bowlby and how does it develop? How is early attachment quality measured? How does early attachment quality influence us? How do young children experience emotions? How do young children play?


4 Erikson’s Early Stages of Psychosocial Development
Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy (Birth to 1 year) Goal to obtain hope—healthy balance between openness and caution Responsive, reliable parents Basic needs met Protection from harm Infrequent times when needs cannot be immediately met can help to promote a balance

5 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1 – 3 years Goal to obtain will—healthy understanding that we can intentionally cause things to happen in the world Begin to use language to express their own desires Allow children some choices

6 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
3 – 5 years Goal to obtain purpose— healthy balance between individual interests and the interests of others Allow so responsibility and freedom Emphasize that actions affect other people too Talk about emotions of the child and others

7 Growth of Attachment Evolutionary Psychology - theoretical view that human behaviors represent successful adaptations to the environment “Father of attachment theory”—John Bowlby Attachment - enduring socioemotional relationship between infants and caregivers

8 Stages of Attachment Parents often begin the process of attachment when they learn they will have a child. Preattachment (Birth to about 2 months) Attachment in the making (2 – 6 months) True attachment (6 – 18 months) Reciprocal relationships (18 months and up)

9 The Special Role of Fathers
Can also be attachment figures Children can form multiple attachments Joy is often important in father-child relationships Fathers also able to provide comfort in times of distress

10 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test: Key Points of Interest for Secure Attachments in Infants
Exploration of toys Social referencing Some separation distress Ability to be soothed relatively quickly Joy upon reunion & proximity seeking behaviors Ability to return to exploration of toys

11 Classifications of Attachment Quality
Secure Attachment % of US infants Strong bond, high quality relationship Avoidant Attachment 20% of US infants Used to being alone or caregiver may be overwhelming to the infant Little separation distress & joy upon reunion Resistant Attachment 10 – 15% of US infants Anxious, fearful, not easily calmed Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment 5 – 10& of US infants Confusion or disconnection

12 Video Illustration & In-Class Activity!
Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

13 What Determines Quality of Attachment
Parenting behaviors & mental health Child’s temperament Attachment contributes to an infant’s… Internal Working Model Infant’s understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is; thought to influence close relationships throughout the child’s life

14 The Impact of Work and Childcare on Attachment Quality
See page 179: Low teacher-child ratio Trained, experienced staff with a knowledge of child development Low turnover! Stimulating environment Effective partnership between parent and childcare providers Check with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) at to see if the center is certified.

15 Experiencing and Expression Emotions
Basic Emotions: emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements a subjective feeling a physiological change an overt behavior

16 Measuring Emotions Facial expressions are strong indicators of emotions Some evidence we are biologically programmed to express basic emotions Similarities between adults’ and infants’ expressions of emotions

17 Development of Basic Emotions
Social Smiles - smile that infants produce when they see a human face Stranger Wariness - first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults

18 Complex Emotions & Later Developments
Not universally expressed in similar ways Various experiences contribute to emotions Cultural context plays a large role in emotional expression

19 Recognizing and Using Other’s Emotions
Social Referencing Behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation

20 Learning to Regulate Emotions
Children develop various strategies Over time, children learn ways to appropriately express emotions Children learn to mask some emotions as they age Attachment figures can aid in emotion regulation

21 Interacting with Others
Parallel Play - when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is going Simple Social Play - play that begins at months; toddlers engage in similar activities as well as talk and smile at each other Cooperative Play - play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins around 2 years

22 Gender Differences in Play
Enabling Actions - typical in girls; individual’s actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction Constricting Actions - typical in boys; interaction in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other

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