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Chapter 5: Entering the Social World Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood DEP 2004 Spring 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Entering the Social World Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood DEP 2004 Spring 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Entering the Social World Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood DEP 2004 Spring 2011

2 Guiding Questions:  What are the early stages of psychosocial development according to Erik Erikson?  What is an attachment according to John Bowlby and how does it develop?  How is early attachment quality measured?  How does early attachment quality influence us?  How do young children experience emotions?  How do young children play?

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4 Erikson’s Early Stages of Psychosocial Development  Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust  Infancy (Birth to 1 year)  Goal to obtain hope—healthy balance between openness and caution  Responsive, reliable parents  Basic needs met  Protection from harm  Infrequent times when needs cannot be immediately met can help to promote a balance

5  Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  1 – 3 years  Goal to obtain will—healthy understanding that we can intentionally cause things to happen in the world  Begin to use language to express their own desires  Allow children some choices

6  Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt  3 – 5 years  Goal to obtain purpose— healthy balance between individual interests and the interests of others  Allow so responsibility and freedom  Emphasize that actions affect other people too  Talk about emotions of the child and others

7 Growth of Attachment  Evolutionary Psychology - theoretical view that human behaviors represent successful adaptations to the environment  “Father of attachment theory”—John Bowlby  Attachment - enduring socioemotional relationship between infants and caregivers

8 Stages of Attachment  Parents often begin the process of attachment when they learn they will have a child.  Preattachment (Birth to about 2 months)  Attachment in the making (2 – 6 months)  True attachment (6 – 18 months)  Reciprocal relationships (18 months and up)

9 The Special Role of Fathers  Can also be attachment figures  Children can form multiple attachments  Joy is often important in father-child relationships  Fathers also able to provide comfort in times of distress

10 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test: Key Points of Interest for Secure Attachments in Infants  Exploration of toys  Social referencing  Some separation distress  Ability to be soothed relatively quickly  Joy upon reunion & proximity seeking behaviors  Ability to return to exploration of toys

11 Classifications of Attachment Quality  Secure Attachment  % of US infants  Strong bond, high quality relationship  Avoidant Attachment  20% of US infants  Used to being alone or caregiver may be overwhelming to the infant  Little separation distress & joy upon reunion  Resistant Attachment  10 – 15% of US infants  Anxious, fearful, not easily calmed  Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment  5 – 10& of US infants  Confusion or disconnection

12 Video Illustration & In-Class Activity!  Ainsworth’s Strange Situation

13 What Determines Quality of Attachment  Parenting behaviors & mental health  Child’s temperament  Attachment contributes to an infant’s…  Internal Working Model  Infant’s understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is; thought to influence close relationships throughout the child’s life

14 The Impact of Work and Childcare on Attachment Quality  See page 179:  Low teacher-child ratio  Trained, experienced staff with a knowledge of child development  Low turnover!  Stimulating environment  Effective partnership between parent and childcare providers  Check with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) at to see if the center is certified.www.naeyc.org

15 Experiencing and Expression Emotions  Basic Emotions: emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements  a subjective feeling  a physiological change  an overt behavior

16 Measuring Emotions  Facial expressions are strong indicators of emotions  Some evidence we are biologically programmed to express basic emotions  Similarities between adults’ and infants’ expressions of emotions

17 Development of Basic Emotions  Social Smiles - smile that infants produce when they see a human face  Stranger Wariness - first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults

18 Complex Emotions & Later Developments  Not universally expressed in similar ways  Various experiences contribute to emotions  Cultural context plays a large role in emotional expression

19 Recognizing and Using Other’s Emotions  Social Referencing  Behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation

20 Learning to Regulate Emotions  Children develop various strategies  Over time, children learn ways to appropriately express emotions  Children learn to mask some emotions as they age  Attachment figures can aid in emotion regulation

21 Interacting with Others  Parallel Play - when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is going  Simple Social Play - play that begins at months; toddlers engage in similar activities as well as talk and smile at each other  Cooperative Play - play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins around 2 years

22 Gender Differences in Play  Enabling Actions - typical in girls; individual’s actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction  Constricting Actions - typical in boys; interaction in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other


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