Presentation on theme: "Emotional Development. Why do infants become attached to their caregivers? Behaviorists: drive reduction model –hunger basic drive –food primary reinforcer."— Presentation transcript:
Why do infants become attached to their caregivers? Behaviorists: drive reduction model –hunger basic drive –food primary reinforcer –“food provider” secondary reinforcer
The activity of feeding is central to the development of infant’s attachment to mother.
Harry Harlow Is it true that baby becomes attached to mom because mom feeds her?
Baby Rhesus monkeys were raised in isolation with: wire substitute mother cloth substitute mother
John Bowlby ethological theory of attachment
Ethological Theory of Attachment Inherited propensity to seek and maintain proximity to caregiver, especially in stressful situations. What for? To ensure survival.
Attachment Bonding Klauss & Kennell, 1976 Sensitive Period for Bonding
ATTACHMENT enduring emotional bond seek and maintain proximity to specific person under stress
Development of Attachment Pre-attachment Phase (birth - 6 weeks) –Signaling behaviors –Indiscriminate and automatic –No true attachment
Development of Attachment Attachment-in-the-Making Phase (6 weeks-6/8 months) –Baby responds differently to familiar people than to strangers. –Does not yet protest when separated from caregiver.
Development of Attachment Clear-Cut Attachment Phase 6-8 months) –Clear attachment to a particular person –Separation anxiety –Attachment system is resistant to “reprogramming”
Development of Attachment Reciprocal Relationship Phase (starting at 18 mos) –Representational ability –Language ability –Less need to maintain proximity –Protest declines
All babies form attachments. All attachments are not the same!
Mary Ainsworth The Strange Situation
Secure Attachment Plays while mom is present Upset when mom leaves Not easily comforted by stranger Calms down when mom returns
Anxious-Avoidant Attachment Indifferent when mom is present and when mom leaves Easily comforted by a stranger Slow to greet mom Are they just independent children?
Anxious-Resistant Attachment Anxious and clingy when mom is present Upset when mom leaves Not easily comforted by a stranger Angry and rejecting when mom returns
Disorganized Attachment Contradictory behaviors at reunion Combination of avoidant and resistant behaviors
Parenting Side of Attachment Secure attachment –Parent responds to infant promptly and sensitively Anxious-avoidant attachment –Parent is ignoring and/or rejecting Anxious-resistant attachment –Not extremely rejecting or accepting of child –Parent responds contingent upon own needs, not child’s needs!
Parenting Side of Attachment Disorganized –Uninvolved, withdrawn –Low emotional signaling –Victims of maltreatment and abuse –Early loss of attachment figure –And/or severe depression
Working Models An internal image of the attachment figure An internal image of the self
Working models Early relationships become incorporated They become a set of expectations that are applied to new relationships
Stability of Attachment Attachment is stable Separations can affect attachment Changes in life circumstances can positively or negatively affect the attachment relationship
Attachment Hierarchies Monotrophy Hypothesis –Infants have a strong genetic bias to focus most of their attachment behavior on one person (i.e., primary caregiver)
Attachment Hierarchies Secondary Attachment serves as a buffer if: –The primary attachment is absent –The primary attachment is insecure
Attachment & Later Development Secure attachment –various social advantages (more persistent, cooperative, sociable, seek help when needed, rated as better friends) Anxious-avoidant attachment –less trusting of others, more negative self-worth, less likely to seek help when needed Anxious-resistant attachment –less persistent, enthusiastic & compliant; express more anger and frustration; more likely to be exploited by peers Disorganized attachment –some evidence suggests they are at risk for showing hostile/aggressive behavior problems at age five
Early attachment affects child’s basic trust openness
Are the various outcomes of attachment due to early attachment relationship continuity of sensitive care
Quality of Attachment BOWLBYinfant mother interaction KAGANchild’s inborn temperament
Temperament –Easy child (40%): quickly establishes regular routines, generally cheerful, adapts easily to new experiences. –Slow-to-warm-up (15%): inactive, low-key reactions to new experiences and environmental stimuli, somewhat negative in mood, slowly adjusts to new experiences. –Difficult (10%): child has irregular daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, tends to react negatively and intensely. –35% are not clearly classified by any single category.
Attachment styles reflect different temperaments, not different types of mother-infant interactions But … 1)Different attachments to different caregivers 2)Life circumstances can affect the quality of attachment
Daycare and Attachment The majority of babies in daycare become securely attached to their primary caregivers. Extensive daycare (> 20 hrs/week), starting during the first year, is associated with increased avoidance.
Is the Strange Situation a valid assessment of attachment for children that normally attend daycare?
Most experts agree that child care per se is not a risk factor in children’s lives. BUT, the quality of child care is critical!
Daycare Quality Stability of relationship with caregiver Training (not just experience) of caregivers Ratio of caregivers to children –1: 3-4 infants –1: year-olds –1: year-olds –1: year-olds –1: year-olds