Attachment What Is Attachment? Individual Differences Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification Attachment, Temperament, and the Wider Social World
Attachment A strong emotional bond to another person
Theories of Attachment Trust versus mistrust: Erikson’s first stage of development –Infants experience world as either secure and comfortable or insecure and uncomfortable –Continuity not guaranteed How Do Emotions and Personality Develop in Infancy?
Theories of Attachment Freud: Infants become attached to person or object giving oral satisfaction Disproved by Harlow’s research: regardless of which mother fed monkeys, both preferred cloth mother contact How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy?
Harlow’s Results: Contact time with wire and cloth surrogate mothers 24 0 6 12 18 21-251-5 6-10 11-10 16-20 Age (days).................... Fed by wire mother Fed by cloth mother Hours per day spent with wire mother Hours per day spent with cloth mother Mean hours per day Fig. 8.5
Measuring Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation: measures infant’s attachment to caregiver –Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions Securely attached Insecure avoidant How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Insecure resistant Insecure disorganized
The Significance of Attachment Some developmentalists believe secure attachment in first year provides important foundation for psychological development How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Others believe too much emphasis is placed on attachment bond in infancy –Ignores diversity of socializing agents and contexts
Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Baby attachmentCaregiver behaviors Securely attachedSensitive to signals, consistently available AvoidantUnavailable, rejecting ResistantInconsistent responses DisorganizedNeglect, physical abuse
Fig. 8.6 30 0 10 40 50 60 70 20 JapanU.S.Germany Percentage of infants Resistant SecureAvoidant Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment: Ainsworth’s strange situation applied to infants in three countries in 1988