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Socio-emotional Development in Infancy ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "Socio-emotional Development in Infancy ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socio-emotional Development in Infancy ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.

2 Attachment What Is Attachment? Individual Differences Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification Attachment, Temperament, and the Wider Social World

3 Attachment A strong emotional bond to another person

4 Theories of Attachment Trust versus mistrust: Erikson’s first stage of development –Infants experience world as either secure and comfortable or insecure and uncomfortable –Continuity not guaranteed How Do Emotions and Personality Develop in Infancy?

5 Theories of Attachment Freud: Infants become attached to person or object giving oral satisfaction Disproved by Harlow’s research: regardless of which mother fed monkeys, both preferred cloth mother contact How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy?

6 What Is Attachment? Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) discovered that contact comfort, rather than food, is critical to the attachment process. Erikson (1968) believed that the first year is the key time frame for the development of attachment. Bowlby (1969) believed that the newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment behaviour from the primary caregiver. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Attachment

7 Harlow’s Results: Contact time with wire and cloth surrogate mothers Age (days) Fed by wire mother Fed by cloth mother Hours per day spent with wire mother Hours per day spent with cloth mother Mean hours per day Fig. 8.5

8 Bowlby: The Development of Attachment Phase 1: Birth to 2 months – infants instinctively direct their attention to human figures. Phase 2: 2–7 months – attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually a primary caregiver. Phase 3: 7–24 months – specific attachments develop. Phase 4: 24 months on – a goal-directed partnership is formed in which children become aware of others’ feelings, goals, & plans. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Attachment

9 Measuring Attachment Ainsworth’s strange situation: measures infant’s attachment to caregiver –Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions Securely attached Insecure avoidant How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Insecure resistant Insecure disorganized

10 The Significance of Attachment Some developmentalists believe secure attachment in first year provides important foundation for psychological development How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Others believe too much emphasis is placed on attachment bond in infancy –Ignores diversity of socializing agents and contexts

11 Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification How Does Attachment Develop in Infancy? Baby attachmentCaregiver behaviors Securely attachedSensitive to signals, consistently available AvoidantUnavailable, rejecting ResistantInconsistent responses DisorganizedNeglect, physical abuse

12 Caregiving Style and Attachment Classification Caregivers of securely attached babies are sensitive to their signals & are consistently available to respond to their infants’ needs. Caregivers of avoidant babies tend to be unavailable or rejecting, tending not to respond to their babies’ signals & having little physical contact with them. Caregivers of resistant babies sometimes respond to their babies’ needs & sometimes do not. Caregivers of disorganized babies often neglect or physically abuse their babies, & sometimes these caregivers suffer from depression. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Attachment

13 Attachment, Temperament, and Wider Social World Researchers recognize the importance of competent, nurturant caregivers in an infant’s development, but it is debated whether or not secure attachment is critical. Not all research reveals the power of infant attachment to predict subsequent development. Some researchers stress that genetic & temperament characteristics play more important roles in a child’s social competence. Cultural variations in attachment have been found. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. Attachment

14 Fig JapanU.S.Germany Percentage of infants Resistant SecureAvoidant Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment: Ainsworth’s strange situation applied to infants in three countries in 1988


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