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Attachment Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Attachment Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Attachment Theory

2 Definition of Attachment
An enduring emotional tie to a special person, characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness, especially during times of stress.

3 Roots of Attachment Theory
John Bowlby applied ethology to infants Influenced by Konrad Lorenz Infant’s innate behaviors are evolved responses which promote survival

4 Importance of Attachment
Implications for infant's sense of security Affects internal working model Freud, Erikson, Behaviorists described its impact on development

5 Bowlby’s Four Stages of Attachment
Preattachment phase Birth - 6 weeks Baby’s innate signals attract caregiver Caregivers remain close by when the baby responds positively

6 Attachment in the Making
6 wks to 6-8 months Develops a sense of trust that caregiver will respond when signaled Infants respond more positively to familiar caregiver Babies don't protest when separated from parent

7 Clear-cut Attachment 6-8 months to 18-24 months
Babies display separation anxiety Babies protest when parent leaves

8 Formation of Reciprocal Relationship
18 mo - 2yrs Toddlers increase their understanding of symbols and language improves Toddlers understand that parents will return

9 Factors which Affect Attachment
Opportunity for attachment Quality of caregiving respond promptly and consistently interactional synchrony – the sensitively tuned “emotional dance” Infant characteristics infant's temperament, special needs, prematurity, or illnesses

10 More Factors which Affect Attachment
Family circumstances Stress can undermine attachment Parents’ internal working models Parents’ own attachment experiences Parents’ ability to accept their past

11 Measuring the Quality of Attachment
Mary Ainsworth researched Designed the “strange situation” A lab experiment with 8 different episodes of separation and reunion Attached infant will: Use mother as a secure base Be soothed by the mother during the reunion

12 Secure attachment Uses caregiver as a secure base
May show distress at separation, but the baby can be soothed at reunion 60-65% of North American children

13 Insecure-Avoidant Attachment
Unresponsive to parent when she is present Not distressed by parting Avoids or slow to greet parent on return 20% of North American children

14 Insecure-Resistant Attachment
Infants remain close to parents and not eager to explore Distressed by separation During reunion, infants are both clingy and resistant 12% of North American children

15 Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
No coherent strategy for handling separations or reunions Baby looks dazed and confused 5-10% of North American children

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