Presentation on theme: "1. Sentences and clauses. Starting assumption The following presentation assumes that you have a basic idea about what the following grammar terms mean:"— Presentation transcript:
Starting assumption The following presentation assumes that you have a basic idea about what the following grammar terms mean: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, subject, object, pronoun. Therefore, if you need any clarification on the basic meaning of any of these terms, it will be best to address that before we continue.
The Simple Sentence (independent clause) The simple sentence is the standard unit of thought in writing. When standing alone it is called a simple sentence. When joined to one or more other word groups, it is referred to as an independent clause. A simple sentence expresses a complete thought and contains ONE subject-verb pair. The verb (v) gives key information about the subject (s), such as what the subject did. – My grandmother (s) spoke English well (v).
When you are checking your sentences, only the verbs that can change tense are counted in the subject-verb pair. – My grandmother wants to learn to drive. (Only count “wants” as a verb. The others are infinitives and do not change their tense.) – Swimming is her favourite way to exercise. (Only count “is” as a verb. “Swimming” is a gerund and is used as a noun. “To exercise” is an infinitive and is used as an object.)
Not a sentence: Adjective clause, Adverb clause Adjective and adverb clauses are word groups that cannot stand alone as sentences. Both adjective and adverb clauses contain a subject-verb pair, but they do not express a complete thought. Because they do not express a complete thought, they cannot stand alone as a sentence. Instead, they must be joined to an independent clause.
Adjective (relative) clauses Adjective clauses are also commonly known as relative clauses. They are very often used to make a subject or object in the sentence more specific. They always come after the subject or object that they are specifying. The first word in one of these clauses is a joining word such as who, that, which, whose, or where.
Adverb clauses Adverb clauses begin with another kind of joining word. Adverb clauses usually express time, sequence, location, or a logical relation such as cause. – When the solution was ready, it was poured into two separate beakers. – The samples were ruined because they were improperly packaged. Adverb clauses can come before or after an independent clause.
Subordinators An adverb clause always begins with a subordinator. Subordinators can show such relationships as the following: Time: when, before, after, until, whenever, since. Cause/effect: because, so that, since Compare/contrast: although, even though, even if, while, whereas Possibility: if, as if, whether, unless Place/manner: wherever, where, how
Punctuation point In any combination of an independent clause and an adverb clause, the punctuation depends on the order of the clauses. If the adverb clause comes first, a comma between the clauses is necessary. Example: – Because they viewed the method as unsound, they rejected the article. No comma is necessary if the adverb clause follows the independent clause. – They rejected the article because they viewed the method as unsound.
Coordinators Coordinators are words that can be used to join independent clauses, phrases, or individual words. The coordinators are as follows: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so When a coordinator joins two independent clauses, a comma must precede the coordinator. An alternative is to join the two clauses with a semicolon. Example with comma and coordinator: – Our samples have arrived, so we can start. Example with semicolon: – Our samples have arrived; we can start.