Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Civilization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Foundations of Civilization PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusFrom Villages to CitiesThe First CivilizationsChange in CivilizationsQuick Facts: Economic SystemsVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of Archaeology
2 Foundations of Civilization Main IdeaFrom farming villages arose cities, and with them, the first civilizations, marking the beginnings of recorded history.Reading FocusWhy did some early villages develop into cities?What characterized the world’s first civilizations, and where did they develop?What factors cause civilizations to change over time?
3 From Villages to Cities Advances in farming and changing economies caused villages to grow in size and complexity, and the first cities began to appear.New methods to increase production: irrigation systemsNetworks of canals, ditchesLink fields to water supplyFarm more land in drier conditionsPlant more crops and produce more foodSurplus, or excess of foodAdvances in FarmingFewer people needed to farmBegan to specialize in other jobsDivision of laborTraditional economyEconomic decisions based on custom, ritualBegan to change with development of irrigationTrade increasesChanging Economies
4 Characteristics of Cities Generally larger than villagesFirst known city was Uruk, in what is now IraqHome to 40,000–50,000 peopleCovered more than 1,000 acresPopulations more diverse than in villagesEarly villages consisted of extended familiesEarly cities included many unrelated peopleMore formal organization than in villagesHad defined centers, with temples and marketplacesHad defined boundaries separating the cities from surrounding villagesServed as centers of trade for surrounding villages
5 How did early cities differ from early farming villages? ContrastHow did early cities differ from early farming villages?Answer(s): Cities were larger, more diverse, more dense, and served as trade centers.
6 The First Civilizations The development of cities gave rise to the first civilizations.A civilization is a complex and organized society.Although early civilizations differed, they had several characteristics in common.Characteristics of Early CivilizationsDeveloped citiesOrganized governmentFormalized religionSpecialization of labor: farmers, engineers, soldiers, artisansSocial classesRecord keeping and writingArt and architectureThe first civilizations grew up independently along fertile river valleys where enough food could be produced to support a growing population.
7 Draw ConclusionsWhat was the relationship between job specialization and the development of social classes in early civilizations?Answer(s): The increased wealth of urban societies brought about job specialization. As people specialized, social classes developed. Rulers, nobles, warriors, and priests made up the highest social and economic class. In the middle were traders and merchants. Artisans and farmers formed the lower classes. In many societies, slaves were at the very bottom of the class system.
8 Change in Civilizations Once early civilizations developed, they continued to change over time. Some changes weakened civilizations, while others strengthened them and led to growth and expansion.Dependence on farmingForces of natureNeed for resources, such as metals, stone, and timberExpanded trade for scarce resourcesEnvironmental InfluencesMovement of peopleNew languages, customsCultural diffusionAdvances spread from one civilization to anotherSpread of People and IdeasConflicts over land and resourcesCivilizations expandedSome civilizations developed into states and kingdomsExpansion and Warfare
10 Identify Cause and Effect How did cultural diffusion affect early civilizations?Answer(s): People adopted new customs, skills, and technologies; writing, metalworking, and farming techniques spread; artists borrowed ideas and created new designs; religious beliefs spread.