2 1. In what way did agriculture change the way people lived together? People began to live in larger and more complicated communities, such as villages and towns.As the population grew, cities began to emerge that made life and social relationships more complex.
3 2. What two things helped agriculture to take “root”? The domestication of animalsAndThe invention of new tools – such as hoes, sickles, and plowsThese tools helped people to begin to control the natural environment around them so that agriculture would be successful.
4 3. What effect did agriculture have on population? Successful agriculture provided a plentiful supply of food;therefore, a larger population could be supported;people did not have to move around as much
5 4. Explain how irrigation systems allowed for a more complex economic system: Irrigation allowed the cultivation of more land; this led to the production of a larger harvest.This resulted in having more villagers pursue other jobs and develop skills other than farming.The creation of non-farming jobs led to the production of goods to trade allowing for a wealthier economy.
7 5. What two inventions changed transportation in the early civilizations? the wheelthe sail
8 6. Explain how the social structure in early civilizations developed: With division of labor, different classes of society that reflected wealth, power and influence began to emerge.People who performed certain job functions also began to form social classes that were defined by their economic status.
9 7. What are the 5 characteristics of a civilization? Advanced citiesSpecialized workersComplex institutions; government, religionRecord keeping: written recordsAdvanced technology
10 8. What things distinguish a “village” from a “city”? Some say that the size of the population determines whether or not a village becomes a “city”. However, one of the key differences is that a city is a center of trade for the larger surrounding area.Ancient city-dwellers depended on trade; the market where goods were brought for exchange was the center of a city as well as a great meeting place for every citizen to learn the latest news and gossip.
11 9. What made government necessary in these early civilizations? As the population of cities began to increase, there was a need for a leader to keep order in the cities.The leader was also needed to establish and enforce the laws made by the city.Of course, the leader needed many assistants and other officials to promote the efficient
12 10. Explain how government and religion was interrelated: As cities grew there was a need for specialized workers, such as government officials, priests and traders.Religion became a formal institution. Most cities included temples within their walls. Most people recognized a particular god who protected their city.The temple served as a center for government and religious functions. Eventually the leader became recognized as either a god himself or the representative of the gods on earth.Theocracy=when government and religion are intermixed; the leader is a politician as well as a religious leader