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Vocabulary Civilization Surplus Artisan Pictogram Scribe City-state

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Civilization Surplus Artisan Pictogram Scribe City-state"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vocabulary Civilization Surplus Artisan Pictogram Scribe City-state
Empire Cultural Diffusion WH C2 PO1

2 Beginnings of Civilization
The Rise of Cities WH C2 PO1

3 Objective Describe development of early prehistoric people, their agriculture and settlements WH C2 PO1

4 Pyramids Pyramid building required a society more organized and advanced than Neolithic farmers. WH C2 PO1

5 The Rise of Cities A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order. Cities are a main feature of a civilization As farmers produced surplus of crops in the fertile land along rivers. Populations began to expand Farming Villages began to grow into cities WH C2 PO1

6 River Valley Civilizations
Fertile Crescent Tigris & Euphrates Rivers in Iraq Nile River in Egypt WH C2 PO1

7 River Valley Civilizations
Indus River in India Yellow River in China WH C2 PO1

8 River Valley Civilizations
Conditions favored farming Flood waters spread silt which keeps land fertile. Animals flocked to river for water – providing food Rivers provided a regular water source and means of transportation. WH C2 PO1

9 River Valley Civilizations
Rivers posed challenges Had to control flooding and channel water to fields. Cooperation was needed and required leadership and organized government. Ancient cities required high walls for protection. WH C2 PO1

10 Babylon’s walls were said to be so thick that chariots could turn around on top.

11 Features of Civilization
Cities Well-organized central governments Complex religions Job specialization Social classes Arts & architecture Public works Writing WH C2 PO1

12 Organized Government To provide for a growing population – new forms of government appeared to provide organization for projects Warrior kings emerged as political leaders – setting themselves up as hereditary rulers Claiming this right from their god Government became more complex as rulers issued laws, collected taxes, and prepared defenses. WH C2 PO1

13 Complex Religions Most ancient people were polytheistic.
People created gods that dealt with natural forces and human activities Sun, rivers, sea, etc Birth, trade, or war Built temples and designed elaborate ceremonies to please the gods. Mars – God of War, Poseidon – God of the Sea, WH C2 PO1

14 WH C2 PO1

15 Job Specialization Individuals began to specialize in certain jobs
Artisans, or skilled craftsmen, developed pottery, metalworking, Construction – bricklayers built city walls Soldiers – defended the city Merchants – sold goods and Teachers, entertainers, …….. WH C2 PO1

16 Social Classes Social organization became complex Social Hierarchy
People ranked according to jobs Social Hierarchy Priests & Nobles Wealthy merchants & artisans Peasant farmers Slaves Debt bondage Prisoners of war WH C2 PO1

17 Arts and Architecture Expressed the beliefs and values of the people that created them. Temples and palaces dominated the scenery Skilled workers built and decorated massive buildings. Some still can be seen today WH C2 PO1

18 Public Works Projects ordered built by rulers Roads Bridges Aqueducts
defensive walls WH C2 PO1

19 Writing A critical new skill was the art of writing
Used to record harvest amounts, weather info, rituals & prayers Earliest writing was in the form of pictograms, simple drawings that looked like objects they represented. WH C2 PO1

20 Writing As writing became more complex, only specially trained scribes learned to read and write. Scribes were educated in special temple schools and worked for priest, rulers and merchants. WH C2 PO1

21 Civilizations and Change
Ancient civilizations changed in many ways over the centuries. Causes Physical environment shifts Interactions among people WH C2 PO1

22 Environmental Changes
Early people dependent upon the physical environment. Changes with water and other natural resources could be devastating. Over farming could deplete soil – crops would fail Survivors would move away. Natural disasters – volcanoes, hurricanes, floods could destroy entire cities. WH C2 PO1

23 Interactions among people
Cultural diffusion – the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Occurs through migration, trade, and warfare People would share and adapt customs. Trade introduced new goods or better methods of production. Warfare – victors forced their way of life upon conquered people. WH C2 PO1

24 Homework Questions How did the conditions in some river valleys favor the rise of early civilizations? How were governments and religion closely linked in early civilizations? What are the three causes of cultural change? Give three examples of cultural diffusion in today's world. WH C2 PO1

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