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Foundations of Civilization the building blocks of society.

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Civilization the building blocks of society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Civilization the building blocks of society

2 Terms to Know Surplus – an excess of something (food) Cultural diffusion – the spread of customs, ideas, and technology from one group to another Traditional economy – economic decisions are based on custom, ritual, and tradition Civilization – a complex, organized society

3 What are the main features of a civilization? Cities Well-organized central government Complex religion Job specialization Social classes Arts and architecture Public works Writing

4 Cities People need to live close together to maintain farms Buildings need to be permanent Walls are needed to protect the cities from enemy groups

5 Organized Governments Oversaw irrigation projects for farming Created laws Collected taxes for big projects Organized defense Sometimes became powerful in religious ceremonies

6 Complex Religions Polytheistic Gods often controlled forces of nature (sun, wind, storms, rivers, etc.) and human activities (war, trade, birth) Priests wanted to win the favor of the gods People built temples, prayed, and made sacrifices when they needed help from the gods

7 Job Specialization City dwellers could not master all of the skills needed to produce everything they needed, so they began division of labor, giving people specific jobs People began to specialize and produce certain goods Artisans: skilled craftspeople - builders, blacksmiths, craftsmen, bakers, farmers, traders Caused increased dependency on others

8 Social Classes People ranked by their profession Priests usually at the top Government officials and military came next Merchants and artisans were lower Slaves at the bottom

9 Arts and Architecture Expressed the ideas and beliefs of a civilization Temples are prime example Big buildings often decorated Sculptures, jewelry, paintings, statues

10 Public Works Irrigation systems Roads Defense walls Very expensive, take a long time to build Necessary for a civilization to grow and be safe

11 Writing Appeared in temples Needed to record information about the seasons, rituals, and prayers Important for keeping track of events and government business Also important for merchants

12 Where did the First Civilizations Emerge? Africa Egypt Mesopotamia India China Central and South America

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