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Section 1 – Early Agriculture

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1 Section 1 – Early Agriculture
Chapter 2 Section 1 – Early Agriculture

2 Key Terms Revolution – a complete change in ways of thinking, living, or working Domesticate – Change the growth of plants or behavior of animals in ways that are useful to humans Surplus - extra Specialization – act of concentrating on a limited number of goods or activities

3 The Birth of Farming People adapted to the changing climate by learning to farm

4 Modifying the Environment
People learned that if they scattered seeds, plants would grow

5 Domesticating Plants and Animals
Widespread domestication marked the birth of farming Domesticated plants became a reliable source of food

6 Spread of Farming No one knows for sure where farming originated

7 First Centers of Agriculture
Most historians believe Southwestern Asia was the first center of agriculture

8 Cost and Benefits to Farming
Transition from hunting and gathering to farming was a slow process Planting crops and herding animals took time and energy If crops fail due to weather, a family might starve

9 Continued… Farming produced more food Required less land
People built permanent homes because of farming

10 New kinds of Shelter Used a mixture of mud and straw to form walls

11 NEW KINDS OF CLOTHING Hunter-Gatherer societies depended on animal fur, farming brought new materials that were lighter and easier to work with. Example: Flax Cotton Wool Silk

12 Surpluses and specialization
As crops and herds improved, farmers could raise a surplus When there is a surplus, everyone doesn’t need to farm Those people become specialized workers Example: Tool makers Weavers metalworkers

13 Social Organization Early farmers had to work together
They discuss what to plant, and when to harvest They discuss how to protect the community

14 Chapter 2 Section 2 Cities and Civilizations Page 90

15 City of Uruk Considered the worlds first city
Founded around 6,000-7,000 years ago Uruk had one of the first complex governments

16 Centers of wealth Uruk also had a complex economy
Uruk’s economy was based on faming, and trade The wealth of the city attracted people to the city

17 The importance of resources
Early civilizations depended on creating a food surplus The most important resources were fertile soil, water, and seeds However, these were not important if there was not people there to manage the resources

18 Settings of Early Civilizations
Earliest civilizations appear in southwestern Asia River valleys provide a good setting for permanent settlements

19 Features of Civilizations
Cities Organized governments Established religions Job specialization Social classes Public works Arts and Architecture System of writing

20 Cities Early cities emerged near farming centers
Food surplus led to population growth Cities were centers of religion, government, and culture

21 Organized Government Government managed cities resources
Formed and trained armies

22 Established Religion Religion was linked to government
Rulers usually claimed their right to rule from their gods

23 Job Specialization Most people were farmers
Priest specialized in religious practice Rulers and soldiers specialized in keeping peace and protecting the city Merchants specialized in buying and selling goods

24 Social Classes Class structure resembles a pyramid
Small number of people with the most power at the top Largest number of people with the least power at the bottom

25 Social Classes Highest class Priest and rulers Middle Class
Farmers, Merchants, and Skilled workers Lowest Class Slaves

26 Public Works Government Projects Road work Water system City walls

27 System of Writing Early writing system was used to record numbers
Eventually they recorded laws, prayers, and described their rulers

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