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Chapter 2 Section 2 Cities and Civilizations Standards H-SS 6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 2 Cities and Civilizations Standards H-SS 6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 2 Section 2 Cities and Civilizations

3 Standards H-SS 6.2.1 Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlements and early civilizations. E-LA Reading 6.1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

4 Objective You will read about early cities and how they led to the rise of early civilizations.

5 Anticipatory Set Previously you… Read about hunter-gatherers who changed their nomadic ways of life. Read that as farming spread across the Middle East, many small permanent settlements appeared. Read that some of these villages grew into cities.

6 Anticipatory Set Have you ever imagined the perfect place to live? Did you want to build your own city, town, state, or even country? What would be included in it to make it the best place to live? This is exactly what the Early People thought about as they began to settle and move away from being hunter-gatherers.

7 Language of the Discipline Economy Civilization Resource Established Religion Social Classes

8 Input The First Cities The world’s first cities began as farming villages in the Middle East As villages grew people began to trade with people from other villages Trade became an important source of wealth. The City of Uruk This was the world’s first city according to historians. It was founded in present-day Iraq It had houses, gardens, and large public buildings such as temples. Uruk was not the oldest city in the Middle East, Catalhuyuk was older, but Uruk was different.

9 Input Uruk 40,000 people lived there It covered 1,000 acres Uruk had a strong well- organized government whose first rulers were probably temple priests. Later powerful military leaders ruled as kings and had far more power than the village council did. Catalhuyuk 6,000 people lived there Covered 32 acres Catalhuyuk had their village council settle most disputes

10 Input Centers of Wealth Uruk had a more complex economy than Catalhuyuk and other villages. It’s economy was based on both farming and trade. Workshops produced all kinds of goods lined in the cities streets. Traders traveled widely because archaeologists have found pottery and other trade goods from Uruk in many places in the Middle East. The wealth in Uruk attracted many people. Farmers began to move into cities. Many cities built walls to protect themselves from raiders. Walls were 18 feet thick and stretched for 6 miles around the city.

11 Input The Rise of Civilizations As early cities grew in size and power, some of them gave rise to civilizations. The word civilization comes from the Latin word civis, meaning “resident of a city.” The rise of early civilizations depended on the creation of a food surplus. Created a surplus depended on the ability of people to manage their resources well. Most resources were Soil, water, and seeds. Resources were worth little if people could not provide the labor and tools needed to produce enough food. Managing resources required planning and organization that marked a new stage in humans society.

12 Input Settings of Early Civilizations The first civilization also appeared in the Middle East. Others were in different parts of the world. Four of these developed major river valleys that provided a good setting for permanent settlements. Each year rivers rose and flooded the nearby land and when the water went down, fresh fertile soil remained and was used to grow crops. The Maya civilization started in rain forests of present-day Mexico and Central America. The Inca civilization began in the Andes Mountains of South America.

13 Input Features and Civilizations Early civilizations shared 7 features. Cities Cities served as centers for religion, government, and culture. Well-Organized Government Managed societies resources, organizing workers to build public roads, water systems, and city walls. A strong government also can train an army to defend society from attack. Rulers usually claimed their right to rule came from the gods.

14 Input Established Religion People shared a belief in many gods that they believed controlled most events in their lives. Priests led prayers and offered sacrifices hoping to keep the gods happy. People hoped their gods would protect them from harm. Job Specification Most in early civilizations were farmers. Specialized workers were priests (religious activities), rulers, soldiers (specialized in keeping order in the city), craftsworkers (producing goods), traders, and merchants (bought and sold goods)

15 Input Social Classes Different ranks or levels The highest were priests and rulers. Middle social class included farmers, merchants, and skilled workers. Lowest class was the slaves. Highly Developed Culture Production of great works of art, music, and literature. The build magnificent temples, tombs, and palaces. People studied the movement of the stars and developed such sciences and mathematics and medicine. System of Writing At first it was used to record numbers and evolved into written records.

16 Check for Understanding Please determine the BEST answer for the following question. Please write your answer on your white boards and wait for the teacher’s signal. On the teacher’s signal, hold up your white boards.

17 Checking for Understanding In what part of the world did many of the earliest cities and civilizations arise? Many of the earliest cities and civilizations arose in the Middle East

18 Checking for Understanding Uruk had a complex ____________ or production, distribution, and use of goods and services. Economy

19 Checking for Understanding Name one of the seven common features of a civilization. Religion is a common feature of a civilization

20 Guided Practice/Independent Practice Guided Practice Complete questions 1 - 2 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Raise your hand and wait to get stamped. If you received an “R” go to the back table with Ms. Graham. Independent Practice Once you have been stamped moved to independent practice and complete numbers 3 and 4 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Homework Note-taking guide on the reverse side.

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