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The Thirteen Colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "The Thirteen Colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Thirteen Colonies

2 New England Colonies Hilly land, rocky soil, and a jagged coastline.
Dense forests. Summers were mild and the winters were cold.

3 Religion The church helped shape every day life.
Lives were centered around religion, family duties and public work. The Puritan work ethic helped colonists prosper.

4 Government Colonies had democratic systems of government.
Town Hall Meetings were the center of New England politics.

5 Economy Trade was vital to the economy. Important industries were:
Buy Sell Important industries were: Fishing Forestry and lumber Shipbuilding

6 Plymouth Colony Plymouth was established by Pilgrims, separatists from the Church of England, in 1620. The Mayflower Compact was written when colonists landed too far away from Virginia to be ruled by its government. William Bradford was governor.

7 Massachusetts Bay Colony
The colony was settled by Puritans in 1630 who wanted to avoid religious persecution. John Winthrop was the colony’s governor. The Great Migration brought 20,000 settlers to Massachusetts. Politics and religion were closely linked. Colonists held town meetings, but only male church members could vote.

8 New Hampshire Some colonists settled north of Massachusetts.
The colony grew slowly. The colony became known as New Hampshire.

9 Connecticut Reverend Thomas Hooker and his followers left
Massachusetts to establish Connecticut. Reverend Hooker helped develop the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This was a plan of government which gave more people the right to vote.

10 Rhode Island Minister Roger Williams believed the Puritan
church had too much power. He was forced to leave Massachusetts. Williams and his supporters formed a new colony called Rhode Island. Williams supported: Separation of church and state Religious tolerance Fair treatment of American Indians

11 Middle Colonies Fertile farmland Good climate to grow crops
Called the “Breadbasket Colonies”

12 Religion Settlers in the Middle Colonies protected religious freedom.
They were the most religiously tolerant of all colonies. Not one religious group dominated the region.

13 Government Middle Colonies had colonial assemblies.
Representatives were elected by the people.

14 Economy Farms grew staple crops such as wheat, barley and oats.
Became known as the “Breadbasket Colonies.”” Farmers also raised and sold livestock such as cattle and pigs. Rich deposits of iron ore resulted in the ironworks industry becoming important.

15 New York Dutch settlers founded the colony of New Netherland for the
purpose of trading furs. In 1664, the English took control and renamed the colony New York.

16 New Jersey Land was given to Lord John Berkeley
and Sir George Carteret. They named their colony New Jersey.

17 Pennsylvania William Penn was granted a
charter for a colony to protect the Quakers who were suffering from religious persecution. The colony of Pennsylvania was established in 1682. Quakers believed all people had an inner goodness and all men were equal. Religious freedom was promised to all.

18 Delaware In land originally settled by Sweden, William Penn acquired
this area south of Pennsylvania. As the Lower Counties were settled, they elected their own assembly. Later they became the colony of Delaware.

19 Southern Colonies Large area with Appalachian Mountains
on western boundary and Atlantic Ocean on eastern boundary. Climate and soil good for warm-weather crops.

20 Religion The Anglican Church, or the Church of England, was the
dominate religion. Maryland, however, was established for the Catholics to practice their religion.

21 Government Southern colonies held colonial assemblies
House of Burgesses was the first representative government in the colonies. Southern colonies held colonial assemblies and decisions were usually made at the county level.

22 The Southern economy depended on agriculture.
Indentured Servants Signed a contract to work 4 to 7 years for the people who paid their ship fare to America 75% of early Virginia colonists were indentured servants Living conditions were poor After period of indenture were able to claim land Slave Labor First Africans sold in Virginia in 1619 Virginia colonists turned to slave labor when demand for workers increased Living conditions were poor Were kept in lifelong slavery

23 Economy Farmers grew cash crops, which are crops sold for profit,
such as: Tobacco Rice Indigo

24 Virginia First settlement was Jamestown In 1607.
Jamestown became successful after John Rolfe introduced a mild variety of tobacco for export to England.

25 Virginia John Smith was governor of Virginia. Capt. Smith helped the colony of Jamestown by making colonists plant food crops and build sturdy housing.

26 Maryland Cecilius Calvert, known as Lord Baltimore, was given a
charter to start colony for a refuge for Catholics. In 1634, 200 colonists formed the colony of Maryland. Lord Baltimore passed the Toleration Acts of 1649. This was one of the first laws supporting religious tolerance passed in the English Colonies.

27 North and South Carolina
Founded in 1663, North and South Carolina were one colony. They were later separated. North Carolina colonists were mostly poor tobacco farmers with smaller farms. South Carolina had large plantations and depended on slave labor to raise rice and indigo.

28 Georgia James Oglethorpe was granted a charter and
established the colony of Georgia in 1733. Georgia was founded for poor English citizens. Some had been jailed for unpaid debts.

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