2 New England Colonies Hilly land, rocky soil, and a jagged coastline. Dense forests.Summers were mildand the winters werecold.
3 Religion The church helped shape every day life. Lives were centered around religion, family dutiesand public work.The Puritan work ethic helped colonists prosper.
4 Government Colonies had democratic systems of government. Town Hall Meetings were the center ofNew England politics.
5 Economy Trade was vital to the economy. Important industries were: BuySellImportant industries were:FishingForestry and lumberShipbuilding
6 Plymouth ColonyPlymouth was established by Pilgrims, separatists from the Church of England, in 1620.The Mayflower Compact was writtenwhen colonists landed too far awayfrom Virginia to be ruled by its government.William Bradfordwas governor.
7 Massachusetts Bay Colony The colony was settled by Puritansin 1630 who wanted to avoidreligious persecution.John Winthrop was the colony’s governor.The Great Migration brought 20,000settlers to Massachusetts.Politics and religion were closely linked.Colonists held town meetings, butonly male church members could vote.
8 New Hampshire Some colonists settled north of Massachusetts. The colony grew slowly.The colony became known as New Hampshire.
9 Connecticut Reverend Thomas Hooker and his followers left Massachusetts to establishConnecticut.Reverend Hooker helped develop theFundamental Orders of Connecticut.This was a plan of government whichgave more people the right to vote.
10 Rhode Island Minister Roger Williams believed the Puritan church had too muchpower.He was forced to leave Massachusetts.Williams and his supporters formed anew colony called Rhode Island.Williams supported:Separation of church and stateReligious toleranceFair treatment of American Indians
11 Middle Colonies Fertile farmland Good climate to grow crops Called the “BreadbasketColonies”
12 Religion Settlers in the Middle Colonies protected religious freedom. They were the most religiously tolerant of all colonies.Not one religious group dominated the region.
13 Government Middle Colonies had colonial assemblies. Representatives were elected by the people.
14 Economy Farms grew staple crops such as wheat, barley and oats. Became known as the “Breadbasket Colonies.””Farmers also raised and soldlivestock such as cattle and pigs.Rich deposits of iron ore resulted inthe ironworks industry becoming important.
15 New York Dutch settlers founded the colony of New Netherland for the purpose of trading furs.In 1664, the English took control and renamedthe colony New York.
16 New Jersey Land was given to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.They named theircolony New Jersey.
17 Pennsylvania William Penn was granted a charter for a colony to protectthe Quakers who were sufferingfrom religious persecution.The colony of Pennsylvania wasestablished in 1682.Quakers believed all people had aninner goodness and all men were equal.Religious freedom was promised to all.
18 Delaware In land originally settled by Sweden, William Penn acquired this area south of Pennsylvania.As the Lower Counties were settled, theyelected their own assembly.Later they became the colony of Delaware.
19 Southern Colonies Large area with Appalachian Mountains on western boundaryand Atlantic Oceanon eastern boundary.Climate and soil goodfor warm-weather crops.
20 Religion The Anglican Church, or the Church of England, was the dominate religion.Maryland, however, wasestablished for the Catholicsto practice their religion.
21 Government Southern colonies held colonial assemblies House of Burgesseswas the firstrepresentativegovernmentin the colonies.Southern colonies held colonial assembliesand decisions were usually madeat the county level.
22 The Southern economy depended on agriculture. Indentured ServantsSigned a contract to work4 to 7 years for the peoplewho paid their ship fare toAmerica75% of early Virginiacolonists were indenturedservantsLiving conditions were poorAfter period of indenturewere able to claim landSlave LaborFirst Africans sold inVirginia in 1619Virginia colonists turnedto slave labor whendemand for workersincreasedLiving conditions werepoorWere kept in lifelongslavery
23 Economy Farmers grew cash crops, which are crops sold for profit, such as:TobaccoRiceIndigo
24 Virginia First settlement was Jamestown In 1607. Jamestown became successful afterJohn Rolfe introduced a mild variety oftobacco for export to England.
25 VirginiaJohn Smith was governorof Virginia.Capt. Smith helped thecolony of Jamestown bymaking colonistsplant food crops and buildsturdy housing.
26 Maryland Cecilius Calvert, known as Lord Baltimore, was given a charter to start colony for arefuge for Catholics.In 1634, 200 colonists formed thecolony of Maryland.Lord Baltimore passed the Toleration Acts of 1649.This was one of the first laws supporting religioustolerance passed in the English Colonies.
27 North and South Carolina Founded in 1663, North andSouth Carolina were one colony.They were later separated.North Carolina colonists were mostly poortobacco farmers with smaller farms.South Carolina had large plantationsand depended on slave labor toraise rice and indigo.
28 Georgia James Oglethorpe was granted a charter and established the colonyof Georgia in 1733.Georgia was founded for poor English citizens.Some had been jailed for unpaid debts.