Table of Contents Microorganisms are small living bodies that are not visible to the naked eye. ▫Nonpathogens - maintain body processes ▫Pathogens – cause infection and disease Classes of microorganisms: ▫Bacteria ▫Protozoa ▫Fungi ▫Viruses
Table of Contents Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms that are classified by shape. Spores are thick-walled cells created by bacteria to aid in reproduction and to make the bacteria resistant to harsh environments. Spores can result in serious illness. Diseases - food poisoning, strep throat, tetanus, syphilis, and cholera
Table of Contents Protozoa are the simplest organisms in the animal kingdom. Most protozoa need moisture to survive, so they are often found in watery environments. Diseases - malaria, dysentery, and African sleeping sickness
Table of Contents Fungi are plant-like microorganisms that can be found in the air, in soil, on plants, or in water. There are thousands of types of fungi, including mushrooms, yeasts, and molds. Only about half of these types of fungi are pathogenic. Diseases - athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections, and thrush
Table of Contents Viruses are the smallest type of microorganism. They are made up of only a few molecules. Viruses invade the cells of a living organism where they reproduce more viruses. Diseases - common cold, chicken pox, measles, herpes, hepatitis B and C, HIV, and AIDS
Table of Contents Endogenous – begins inside the body Exogenous – caused by something outside the body Nosocomial – acquired by an individual within a health care facility Opportunistic – occur when the body’s defenses are weak
Table of Contents An infectious disease results from an invasion of microorganisms. A communicable disease is a type of infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another person. Not all infectious diseases are communicable.
Table of Contents Causative agent Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host
Table of Contents Asepsis is a condition that is free of pathogens. Maintaining asepsis in a health care facility is the primary way to prevent the spread of disease from person to person. It works by breaking the chain of infection.
Table of Contents Medical asepsis is maintaining a clean environment in order to reduce the number of pathogens. It is also called clean technique. Surgical asepsis is maintaining a sterile field that is free from all microorganisms and spores. It is also known as sterile technique.
Table of Contents Sterilization is the highest level of asepsis. Sterilization is a type of surgical asepsis that kills all microorganisms, including viruses and spores. The most common piece of equipment used for sterilization is called an autoclave.
Table of Contents Disinfection is a type of medical asepsis that destroys most pathogens, but is not always effective on viruses and spores. Common disinfectant solutions include chlorine and bleach. An object must soak in a disinfectant solution for at least 20 minutes to be properly disinfected.
Table of Contents Cleaning is the lowest level of asepsis, and is also called sanitization. The cleaning process does not require harsh chemicals to destroy pathogens, so cleaning can be used on people. Antiseptic solutions such as iodine, betadine, and alcohol are often used in the cleaning process.
Table of Contents Hand cleansing is the most basic and important type of medical asepsis. Hand cleansing is the number one way to prevent the spread of infection.
Table of Contents When arriving at the health care facility and immediately before leaving the facility Before and after every patient contact Before and after a procedure Before and after handling a specimen Before and after touching the mouth Before and after wearing gloves. After contacting soiled or contaminated items After picking up any item from the floor After using the bathroom After coughing, sneezing, or using a tissue
Table of Contents Hand washing ◦ Soap and water ◦ Use when visibly dirty Alcohol-based hand-rub ◦ Waterless gel, lotion, etc. ◦ Use when not visibly dirty
Table of Contents Cleaning is the lowest level of medical asepsis. To clean objects or equipment, health care workers may use soap, water, and scrub brushes. Some health care facilities use ultrasonic units for cleaning. An ultrasonic unit uses sound waves and cleaning solution to clean dirt and residue from items.