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Table of Contents Shelby County ATC Emergency Procedures.

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1 Table of Contents Shelby County ATC Emergency Procedures

2 Table of Contents Lessons 1. Microorganisms GoGo 2. Infection GoGo 3. Asepsis GoGo 4. Hand Cleansing GoGo 5. Cleaning Equipment GoGo

3 Table of Contents  Microorganisms are small living bodies that are not visible to the naked eye. ▫Nonpathogens - maintain body processes ▫Pathogens – cause infection and disease  Classes of microorganisms: ▫Bacteria ▫Protozoa ▫Fungi ▫Viruses

4 Table of Contents  Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms that are classified by shape.  Spores are thick-walled cells created by bacteria to aid in reproduction and to make the bacteria resistant to harsh environments. Spores can result in serious illness.  Diseases - food poisoning, strep throat, tetanus, syphilis, and cholera

5 Table of Contents  Protozoa are the simplest organisms in the animal kingdom.  Most protozoa need moisture to survive, so they are often found in watery environments.  Diseases - malaria, dysentery, and African sleeping sickness

6 Table of Contents  Fungi are plant-like microorganisms that can be found in the air, in soil, on plants, or in water.  There are thousands of types of fungi, including mushrooms, yeasts, and molds. Only about half of these types of fungi are pathogenic.  Diseases - athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections, and thrush

7 Table of Contents  Viruses are the smallest type of microorganism. They are made up of only a few molecules.  Viruses invade the cells of a living organism where they reproduce more viruses.  Diseases - common cold, chicken pox, measles, herpes, hepatitis B and C, HIV, and AIDS

8 Table of Contents  Endogenous – begins inside the body  Exogenous – caused by something outside the body  Nosocomial – acquired by an individual within a health care facility  Opportunistic – occur when the body’s defenses are weak

9 Table of Contents  An infectious disease results from an invasion of microorganisms.  A communicable disease is a type of infectious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another person.  Not all infectious diseases are communicable.

10 Table of Contents  Causative agent  Reservoir  Portal of exit  Mode of transmission  Portal of entry  Susceptible host

11 Table of Contents  Airborne Transmission  Bloodborne Transmission  Vectorborne Transmission  Sexual Transmission  Foodborne Transmission  Casual Contact

12 Table of Contents  Asepsis is a condition that is free of pathogens.  Maintaining asepsis in a health care facility is the primary way to prevent the spread of disease from person to person.  It works by breaking the chain of infection.

13 Table of Contents  Medical asepsis is maintaining a clean environment in order to reduce the number of pathogens. It is also called clean technique.  Surgical asepsis is maintaining a sterile field that is free from all microorganisms and spores. It is also known as sterile technique.

14 Table of Contents  Sterilization is the highest level of asepsis.  Sterilization is a type of surgical asepsis that kills all microorganisms, including viruses and spores.  The most common piece of equipment used for sterilization is called an autoclave.

15 Table of Contents  Disinfection is a type of medical asepsis that destroys most pathogens, but is not always effective on viruses and spores.  Common disinfectant solutions include chlorine and bleach. An object must soak in a disinfectant solution for at least 20 minutes to be properly disinfected.

16 Table of Contents  Cleaning is the lowest level of asepsis, and is also called sanitization.  The cleaning process does not require harsh chemicals to destroy pathogens, so cleaning can be used on people.  Antiseptic solutions such as iodine, betadine, and alcohol are often used in the cleaning process.

17 Table of Contents  Hand cleansing is the most basic and important type of medical asepsis.  Hand cleansing is the number one way to prevent the spread of infection.

18 Table of Contents  When arriving at the health care facility and immediately before leaving the facility  Before and after every patient contact  Before and after a procedure  Before and after handling a specimen  Before and after touching the mouth  Before and after wearing gloves.  After contacting soiled or contaminated items  After picking up any item from the floor  After using the bathroom  After coughing, sneezing, or using a tissue

19 Table of Contents  Hand washing ◦ Soap and water ◦ Use when visibly dirty  Alcohol-based hand-rub ◦ Waterless gel, lotion, etc. ◦ Use when not visibly dirty

20 Table of Contents  Cleaning is the lowest level of medical asepsis.  To clean objects or equipment, health care workers may use soap, water, and scrub brushes.  Some health care facilities use ultrasonic units for cleaning. An ultrasonic unit uses sound waves and cleaning solution to clean dirt and residue from items.

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