Presentation on theme: "MICROORGANISMS. Definitions Microorganism: microbe, small living plant or animal that is not visible to the naked eye. Examples: bacteria, protozoa, fungi,"— Presentation transcript:
Definitions Microorganism: microbe, small living plant or animal that is not visible to the naked eye. Examples: bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsiae, and viruses.
Definitions Nonpathogens: microorganisms that are a part of the normal flora of the body and are beneficial to maintaining certain body processes. Pathogens: microorganisms that cause infection and disease. (germs)
From one to another… Microorganisms that are beneficial in one area of the body, can become harmful if they are present in another area of the body.. SO..Nonpathogens can become Pathogens!! Example: E coli is normal in the large intestine..and aid in digestion..BUT if E coli is found in the urinary system or blood it causes infections.
Classifications Bacteria: one celled plants that multiply rapidly. Protozoa: one celled animals found in decayed materials and contaminated water. Fungi: Simple plantlike organisms that live on dead organic matter.
Classifications Rickettsiae: parasites..cant live outside the cells of another organism. Viruses: smallest living organism, visable only with the use of an electron microscope. They cant reproduce unless they are inside another living cell.
Examples Spirilli: spiral shaped. – Causes cholera and syphilis.
Examples Bacteria: – Cocci- round or spherical shaped, occur in pairs chains and clusters. Diplococci: pair of cocci Streptococci: chains (think of a strip of cocci) Staphlococci: Clusters (think of grapes)
Examples Bacteria continued Bacilli: rod shaped, occurs singly, in pairs, or in chains. Some contain flagella (threadlike projections that are similar to tails that allow bacilli to move) – Able to form spores (thick walled capsules) when conditions are poor for growth. – Extremely difficult to kill!
Examples Protozoa: amoeba – Pathogenic ones cause malaria, amebic dysentery, trichomonas, and African sleeping sickness.
Examples Fungi: yeast and molds/ Causes diseases such as ringworm, athlete’s foot, histoplasmosis, and thrush.
Examples Rickettsiae: found on fleas, ticks, and lice, and mites. Causes diseases such as typhus fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Examples Viruses: HIV and HBV Spread from human to human by blood and body fluids. Difficult to kill, resistant to disinfectants, and are not usually affected by antibiotics. Causes many diseases: AIDS, hepatitis B colds, measles, mumps, chicken pox, herpes, warts, flu and polio
What they NEED! Microorganisms NEED : Warm environment: body temperature is ideal Darkness: again..inside the body is protected from light..some microbes are immediately killed by sunlight. Moisture and Food: blood
Oxygen vs. Nonoxygen Aerobic: REQUIRE oxygen. Anerobic: does NOT REQUIRE oxygen. – *The human body is an ideal supplier of all the needs of microorganisms.
Inside or Outside Exogenous: infections or disease that originate OUTSIDE the body. Endogenous: infections or disease that originate INSIDE the body. – Example: tumors, congenital abnormalities, or metabolic disorders.
Nosocomial An infection that originates in the health care facility. Example: Post surgical Pneumonia
Chain of Infection Causative Agent Pathogen Reservoir Where Pathogen lives
Chain of Infection Portal of Exit: – Way to escape the reservoir – Urine, feces, saliva, blood, tears, mucous discharge, sexual secretions,and draining wounds