2 Healthcare workers are routinely exposed to potentially infectious materials during routine care of patients. They must understand the mode of transmission of a variety of infectious diseases and what type of precautions to take to reduce their exposure to and risk for these.
3 Objectives At the end of this lesson, the student will: Analyze principles of infection controlIdentify the Chain of Infection and its role in preventing the spread of microorganismsDemonstrate proper use of Standard Precautions
4 MicroorganismsA microorganism (microbe) is a small living plant or animal that can only be seen with a microscope.Microbes are everywhere.There are two classificationNon-pathogens – do not usually cause infections and help to maintain body processesPathogens – cause infection and disease
5 Classes of Microorganisms Bacteriaone celled microorganisms that are classified by shapeMultiply rapidly and can cause disease in any body systemDiseases: staph infections, strep throat, food poisoning, syphilisProtozoaOne-celled animals that can infect the brain, blood, intestinesDiseases: malaria, dysentery
6 Classes of Microorganisms FungiPlants that live on other plants or animalsInclude yeasts, molds, and mushroomsDiseases: Vaginal yeast infections, thrush, athlete’s foot, ringwormRickettsiaeFound in fleas, ticks, lice, and other insectsSpread by bites of the insectDiseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
7 Classes of Microorganisms VirusesAre the smallest type of microorganism. They are made up of only a few molecules.Viruses invade the cells of a living organism where they reproduce more virusesDiseases: colds, herpes, chicken pox, measles,Hepatitis B and C, HIV, and Aids
8 Requirements of Micro-organisms Microbes need a reservoir (host) to live and grow.Water and nourishment.Most need oxygen to live.A warm and dark environment is needed.Most grow best at body temperature.Microbes are destroyed by heat and light.
9 Classification of Infections and Diseases Endogenous – begins inside the bodyExogenous – caused by something outside the bodyNosocomial or Hospital Acquired Infection – (HAI) acquired by an individual within a health care facilityOpportunistic – occur when the body’s defenses are weak
10 Classification of Infections and Diseases Local infection - is in a body part.Systemic infection - involves the whole bodyCommunicable - can be transmitted from one person to another person.Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO)Organisms that can resist the effects of antibioticsMRSA –Methicillin Resistant StaphylococcusVRE – Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
11 Method of Transmission Chain of InfectionSourceReservoirPortal of ExitMethod of TransmissionPortal of EntrySusceptibleHostIf any part of the chain is broken, the spread of the disease or infection will stop.
12 Mode of Transmission Microbes may be transmitted by: Airborne TransmissionBloodborne TransmissionVectorborne TransmissionSexual TransmissionFoodborne TransmissionCasual Contact
13 Medical Asepsis Asepsis is being free of disease-producing microbes. Measures are needed to achieve asepsis.Medical asepsis (clean technique)Surgical asepsis (sterile technique)Sterilization is the process of destroying all microbes.Contamination is the process of becoming unclean.
14 Rules of Hand HygieneWash your hands with soap & water when they are visibly dirty or soiledAfter using the restroomAfter contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretionsAfter coughing, sneezing, or blowing your noseBefore and after handling, preparing, or eating food
15 Rules of Hand HygieneUse an alcohol-based hand rub to decontaminate your hands if they are not visibly soiledBefore direct contact with a personAfter contact with a person’s intact skinAfter removing gloves
16 Supplies and Equipment Most equipment is disposable, however, nondisposable items must be cleaned and thendisinfected.Disinfection - process of destroying pathogens.Germicides - disinfectants applied to skin, tissues, and non-living objects.Chemical disinfectants - used to clean surfaces and reusable items.Sterilization destroys all non-pathogens and pathogens, including spores.
17 Standard Precautions Are part of the CDC’s Isolation Precautions Reduce the risk of spreading pathogensAre used when giving care for all residentsPrevent the spread for infection from:BloodAll body fluids, secretions, and excretionseven if no blood is visibleSkin with open breaks or woundsMucous membranes
18 Isolation Precautions Blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions can transmit pathogens so barriers are created to prevent the spread of communicable or contagious diseases.Usually the person’s room is used.Are based on clean and dirty.
19 Isolation Precautions Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)GownsMasksEyewearSpecial measures are used forremoving linens, trash, and equipment from the roomcollecting and transporting specimenstransporting persons
20 Gloves and GownsWear gloves whenever contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, and non-intact skin is likely.Gowns protect your clothes and body from contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions.Gowns must completely cover you from your neck to your knees.A wet gown is contaminated.Disposable gowns are discarded after use.
21 Masks, Goggles, EyewearMasks and respirators prevent the spread of microbes from the respiratory tract.Masks are disposable & is contaminated if wet or moistGoggles and face shields protect your face from splashing or spraying of blood and body fluids.The outside of masks, goggles or a face shield is contaminated.Disposable eyewear is discarded after use.Reusable eyewear is cleaned and disinfectedbefore reuse
22 Isolation Precautions Contaminated items are bagged to remove them from the person’s room.Leak-proof plastic bags are used.Bag and transport linens, trash, equipment, and supplies following center policy.Double bagging is not needed unless the outside of the bag is soiled.Use biohazard specimen bags to transport specimens to the laboratory.Procedures for transporting persons vary among centers
23 Bloodborne Pathogen Standard A regulation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect the health team from exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM)HIV and HBV are bloodborne pathogens.The center must have an exposure control plan.It identifies staff at riskIncludes actions to take for an exposure incident.Staff at risk receive free training.
24 Preventive MeasuresMeasures used to reduce the risk of exposure include:Hepatitis B vaccinationsEngineering and work practice controlsPersonal protective equipment (PPE)Proper cleaning and decontamination of contaminated equipmentDecontaminate work surfaces with a proper disinfectant.Use a brush and dustpan or tongs to clean up broken glass
25 Regulated WasteAny soiled with liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infection material, including sharps, must be discarded using special measuresContainers used for discarding regulated waste are closable, puncture-resistant, leak-proof, and color-coded in red and have the BIOHAZARD symbol.The center must be kept clean and sanitary.Special measures must be used with contaminated laundry
26 Exposure IncidentsAny contact of the eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin with blood or OPIM, including parental contact (needles)Incidents must be reported at once.Confidentiality is important.