Microorganisms that cause disease Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases. Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism.
Microorganisms Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body. Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.
Disease Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host
Pathogen A disease producing microorganism. Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction Cause tissue damage Secrete substance that produce effects in the body Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)
Universal Precautions Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions: Wash your hands Wear gloves Handle sharp objects carefully Properly clean all spills Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.
Airborne Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust. TB, Chickenpox, Measles Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room. Pt should wear mask.
Droplet Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking. Rubella, Mumps, Influenza Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt. Pt should wear a mask.
Contact Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing). Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.
Controlling the spread of Disease Chemotherapy Immunization Asepsis –Medical –Surgical Disinfectants
Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions –Gloving –Gowns –Face masks –Eyewear
Handwashing Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present. Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.
Types of Nosocomial Infections Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people Contaminated Hospital Environment Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV
So What, and Who Cares? Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life- threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!
Fingernail Compliance No more than ¼ inch long No artificial nails No chips on nail polish
When do you wash your hands? When hands are visibly soiled Before and after patient contact After removal of gloves After using the toilet After blowing or wiping the nose Upon leaving an isolation area
When do you wash your hands? Before Eating How long do you wash? 10-15 Seconds
When should sharps boxes be emptied? When they are 2/3 full
What are some examples of proper usage of gloves? Wear gloves when you anticipate possible contamination When handling chemicals like disinfectants for cleaning Remove gloves immediately after performing task and performing hand hygiene Hallways should be considered a “glove free zone”
When do you use disinfectant jell? Before and after patient care when hands are not visibly soiled Before performing invasive procedures for hand decontamination To decontaminate hands after contact with patient’s intact skin, i.e., after taking vital signs
What can you use for cleaning equipment and surfaces? Disinfectant wipes
How do you know equipment is clean? Clean equipment is covered with plastic A clean bed or gurney is dressed Medical equipment is cleaned between patients or when soiled Not sure ? Always clean and disinfect.