2 Basic Principals of Infection Control How disease is transmitted and the main ways to prevent transmission.Microorganisms are small living organisms invisible to the naked eyeTwo types of microorganisms1. Pathogens2. Nonpathogens
3 What are microorganisms? Microorganisms are small living organisms invisible to the naked eyeThere are five classes of microorganismsBacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsiae,and viruses.
4 Classifications of microorganisms Bacteria –cocci round MRSA, strepthroatbacilli rods i.e. TB, pertussis, botulismspirilla spirals i.e. syphilis, choleraProtozoa- one cell animal-like i.e. malariaFungi – plant-like organisms i.e. Yeasts, molds i.e. Ringworm, thrush etc.
5 Microorganisms (cont.) Rickettsiae- parasitic i.e. Lice, ticks, fleasViruses - cannot reproduce without a cell,major risk to healthcare workers and areblood borne:Examples of viruses, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, HIV.
6 Factors for Growth of Microorganisms Most prefer warm, moist or wet, dark environment i.e. the human bodyOxygen needs varyanaerobic no oxygenaerobic needs oxygen
7 Pathogenic microorganisms Cause diseases in different waysproduce poisons toxinsallergic reactionsattack and destroy the cellsantibiotics are effective against bacteria not against viruses
8 Classes of Diseases and Infections Endogenousinside the bodyi.e. tumors, congenital disordersExogenousoutside the bodyi.e. trauma, electric shock
9 Classes of Diseases and Infections (cont) Nosocomialacquired in healthcare facilitiesi.e. Staph MRSA, pseudomonasOpportunisticinfections that only affect theimmunosuppressedi.e. Kaposi’s sarcoma, pneumocystis carnii
10 Chain of InfectionCausative agent (pathogen, bacteria, virus)Reservoir (place to live) i.e. human body.Portal of exit (the way the pathogen escapes) i.e. urine, feces, secretionsMode of transmission (transmitted to a reservoir or a host)Direct or Indirect
11 Mode of TransmissionsDirectperson to personsexualcontaminated handsIndirecttouching contaminated equipmentbreathing dropletsinsect bites
12 anyone who can contract the disease weak immune systems Chain of Infection (cont.)Portal of Entrya way to enter a new host or new reservoir i.e. respiratory tract, breaks in the skin etc.Susceptible Hostanyone who can contract the diseaseweak immune systemsanyone with a breakdown in defensemechanisms
13 Infectious AgentPortal of ExitReservoirMode of TransmissionPortal of EntrySusceptible Host
14 Ending the chainBreaking the chainUse aseptic techniqueasepsisBest is hand washingLevels or types of asepsisantiseptics, disinfection, sterilizationAntiseptics used in healthcare alcoholand betadine
15 BacteriaOne celled organismMultiply rapidlyClassified by shape:
16 Cocci Round or spherical in shape Types: Diplococci-occur in pairs-cause gonorrhea, meningitis and pneumonia
17 DiplococciOccur in pairs-cause gonorrhea, meningitis and pneumonia
19 Staphylococci Occur in clusters or groups Most common pyogenic(pus producing)Cause- boils, wound infections and toxic shock
20 Bacilli Rod shaped Occur singly, pairs or in chains Many have flagella which are threadlike projections that allow them to moveCan form spores (thick walled capsules) when conditions for growth are poor which make them DIFFICULT to kill!!!Cause-tuberculosis, tetanus, pertussis (whopping cough)
21 SpirillaSpiral or corkscrew in shapeCause-syphilis and cholera
22 Protozoa One celled animal-like organisms Found in decayed materials and contaminated waterMay have flagellaCause-malaria, trichomonas
23 Fungi Simple plant-like organisms that live on dead organic matter Yeast and molds are common formsCause-ringworm, athletes foot, yeast vaginitis and thrush
24 Rickettsiae Parasitic Microorganisms Cannot live outside the cells of another living organismFound in fleas, lice, ticks and mitesTransmitted to humans by the bites of these insectsCause-Typhus Fever, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
25 Viruses Smallest microorganisms Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cellSpread from human to human by blood or other body secretionsResistant to many disinfectants and not affected by antibioticsCause-Common cold, measles, chickenpox herpes, warts, influenza
26 3 Viruses of Major Concern Hepatitis B-transmitted by blood, serum and other body fluids-affects the liver-has a vaccineHepatitis C-transmitted by blood and blood containing body fluids-no symptoms or flu like symptoms-cause liver damage-vaccine being developedAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-caused by HIV virus-suppresses immune system-no cure or vaccine