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Infection Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Control

2 Basic Principals of Infection Control
How disease is transmitted and the main ways to prevent transmission. Microorganisms are small living organisms invisible to the naked eye Two types of microorganisms 1. Pathogens 2. Nonpathogens

3 What are microorganisms?
Microorganisms are small living organisms invisible to the naked eye There are five classes of microorganisms Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsiae, and viruses.

4 Classifications of microorganisms
Bacteria – cocci round MRSA, strepthroat bacilli rods i.e. TB, pertussis, botulism spirilla spirals i.e. syphilis, cholera Protozoa- one cell animal-like i.e. malaria Fungi – plant-like organisms i.e. Yeasts, molds i.e. Ringworm, thrush etc.

5 Microorganisms (cont.)
Rickettsiae- parasitic i.e. Lice, ticks, fleas Viruses - cannot reproduce without a cell, major risk to healthcare workers and are blood borne: Examples of viruses, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, HIV.

6 Factors for Growth of Microorganisms
Most prefer warm, moist or wet, dark environment i.e. the human body Oxygen needs vary anaerobic no oxygen aerobic needs oxygen

7 Pathogenic microorganisms
Cause diseases in different ways produce poisons toxins allergic reactions attack and destroy the cells antibiotics are effective against bacteria not against viruses

8 Classes of Diseases and Infections
Endogenous inside the body i.e. tumors, congenital disorders Exogenous outside the body i.e. trauma, electric shock

9 Classes of Diseases and Infections (cont)
Nosocomial acquired in healthcare facilities i.e. Staph MRSA, pseudomonas Opportunistic infections that only affect the immunosuppressed i.e. Kaposi’s sarcoma, pneumocystis carnii

10 Chain of Infection Causative agent (pathogen, bacteria, virus) Reservoir (place to live) i.e. human body. Portal of exit (the way the pathogen escapes) i.e. urine, feces, secretions Mode of transmission (transmitted to a reservoir or a host) Direct or Indirect

11 Mode of Transmissions Direct person to person sexual contaminated hands Indirect touching contaminated equipment breathing droplets insect bites

12 anyone who can contract the disease weak immune systems
Chain of Infection (cont.) Portal of Entry a way to enter a new host or new reservoir i.e. respiratory tract, breaks in the skin etc. Susceptible Host anyone who can contract the disease weak immune systems anyone with a breakdown in defense mechanisms

13 Infectious Agent Portal of Exit Reservoir Mode of Transmission Portal of Entry Susceptible Host

14 Ending the chain Breaking the chain Use aseptic technique asepsis Best is hand washing Levels or types of asepsis antiseptics, disinfection, sterilization Antiseptics used in healthcare alcohol and betadine

15 Bacteria One celled organism Multiply rapidly Classified by shape:

16 Cocci Round or spherical in shape Types:
Diplococci-occur in pairs-cause gonorrhea, meningitis and pneumonia

17 Diplococci Occur in pairs-cause gonorrhea, meningitis and pneumonia

18 Streptococci Occur in chains Cause-strep throat

19 Staphylococci Occur in clusters or groups
Most common pyogenic(pus producing) Cause- boils, wound infections and toxic shock

20 Bacilli Rod shaped Occur singly, pairs or in chains
Many have flagella which are threadlike projections that allow them to move Can form spores (thick walled capsules) when conditions for growth are poor which make them DIFFICULT to kill!!! Cause-tuberculosis, tetanus, pertussis (whopping cough)

21 Spirilla Spiral or corkscrew in shape Cause-syphilis and cholera

22 Protozoa One celled animal-like organisms
Found in decayed materials and contaminated water May have flagella Cause-malaria, trichomonas

23 Fungi Simple plant-like organisms that live on dead organic matter
Yeast and molds are common forms Cause-ringworm, athletes foot, yeast vaginitis and thrush

24 Rickettsiae Parasitic Microorganisms
Cannot live outside the cells of another living organism Found in fleas, lice, ticks and mites Transmitted to humans by the bites of these insects Cause-Typhus Fever, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

25 Viruses Smallest microorganisms
Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cell Spread from human to human by blood or other body secretions Resistant to many disinfectants and not affected by antibiotics Cause-Common cold, measles, chickenpox herpes, warts, influenza

26 3 Viruses of Major Concern
Hepatitis B-transmitted by blood, serum and other body fluids-affects the liver-has a vaccine Hepatitis C-transmitted by blood and blood containing body fluids-no symptoms or flu like symptoms-cause liver damage-vaccine being developed Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-caused by HIV virus-suppresses immune system-no cure or vaccine


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