4 Susceptible HostAn organism capable of contracting a specific disease
5 Disease results if the invading pathogen causes Impairment in the host.
6 Types of Pathogens There are different types of pathogens, including: i. Fungiii. Bacteriaiii. Virusesiv. Protozoav. Rickettsiae
7 b. Bacteriai. Single celled organismii. Live in a variety of environmentsiii. Only 1% cause diseaseiv. Usually killed by antibioticsv. examples of diseases caused by bacteria:1. Pneumonias2. Strep Throat3. Tuberculosis
8 c. Virusesi. Smallest of pathogensii. Viruses can reproduce only by invading a host celliii. NOT cured by antibioticsiv. Examples of diseases caused by viruses1. chicken pox2. colds3. flu4. small pox5. HIV
9 Types of InfectionsEndogenous- means it originates within the body Examples1. Metabolic Disorders2. Birth defects/congenital abnormalities3. TumorsExogenous- means it originates outside the bodyExamples1. Pathogenic organisms2. Radiation3. Chemicals4. Trauma5. Electric Shock6. Temperature extremes
10 Types of Infections Nosocomial- infection is one that is acquired by an individual in a health care facilitywhich are transmitted by health care workersto the patientOpportunistic- infections that occur when the body defense’sare weak
11 Common body Defenses Mucous membrane: lines the respiratory, digestive and reproductive tractsb. Cilia: tiny hair like structures that line the respiratorytract to propel pathogens out of the bodyc. Coughing and Sneezingd. Hydrochloric acid: destroys pathogens inthe stomache. Tears in eye: contain chemicals that kill bacteriaf. Fever: kills pathogens via heatg. Immune response: body produces white bloodcells and antibodies to fight pathogens
12 Infections are also classified as Aerobic or Anaerobic: Aerobic- means the organism requires oxygen to liveAnaerobic- means it lives and reproduces in the absences of oxygen.
13 As healthcare professionals, it is important to understand two things about infection:
14 The various ways infection can be transmitted 2. The ways the infection chain can be broken
15 There are six links in the chain of infection :
16 1st - The Pathogen- a pathogen such as bacterium or virus that can cause disease
17 -the place where pathogen can live 2nd - The Reservoir-the place where pathogen can live
18 Common Reservoirs Human Body Animals Environment Fomites- nonliving objects such as doorknobs,cups, utensils, needles
19 What are “Carrier Hosts” Hosts that do not show any outward signs or symptoms of a disease but are still capable of transmitting the disease are known as carriers.
20 -way for pathogen to escape from the reservoir 3rd - The Portal of Exit-way for pathogen to escape from the reservoirPathogens can leave the body through urine, feces, saliva, blood, tears, mucous discharge, sexual secretions, and draining wounds
25 -way to enter a new reservoir or host 5th - The Portal of Entry-way to enter a new reservoir or hostDifferent portals of entry include: Breaks in the skin or mucous membrane, Respiratory tract, Digestive tract, Genitourinary tract, Circulatory system
30 6th - The Susceptible Host -individual who can contract or accept the diseaseHumans become susceptible if…..a. Large numbers of pathogens invade the bodyb. Body defenses are weak
31 Organisms with strong immune systems are better able to fend off pathogens. Humans may fight off pathogens and do not contract disease ifa. Defense mechanisms of body are intactb. Immune system functioning
32 Organisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to the support & reproduction of pathogens.Human becomes susceptible host in some instancesa. Large numbers of the pathogen invade the bodyb. Body defenses are weak
33 The cycle of infection can be broken at any link of the chain -The essential part of patient care & self-protection.
34 The infectious agent can be neutralized or destroyed by treatment
35 The reservoir host must maintain personal hygiene -potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintain proper personal hygiene
36 Control Portals of Exit The portal of exit is closed by the use of proper attire (gowns, gloves, other clothing), control of body secretions, and proper hand washing
37 The route of transmission is minimized through proper hand washing, disinfection and sterilization and proper disposal of contaminated materials.
38 Prevent a Route of Transmission The portal of entry is blocked by asepsis, disinfection, and sterilization proceduresProper hand washingDisinfection & sterilization techniquesIsolation of infected patientsNot working when contagious
39 Protect Portal of Entry Host susceptibility is broken when the health and wellness of an individual is maintained.Recognition of Susceptible Host-health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients-