Presentation on theme: "Illinois CTE Curriculum Revitalization Initiative Health Science and Technology Transmission and Growth of Microorganisms."— Presentation transcript:
Illinois CTE Curriculum Revitalization Initiative Health Science and Technology Transmission and Growth of Microorganisms
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Aerobic Microorganisms require oxygen to live
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Anaerobic Microorganisms live and reproduce in the absence of oxygen http://www.isamicrobiology2007.com/img/aims_2.jpg
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology What do microorganisms require to live and grow? All require a reservoir (host). All require water and nourishment from the reservoir. Most require a warm and dark environment. Most grow best at body temperature. Most are destroyed by heat and light.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Asepsis and Maintaining Medical Asepsis Asepsis is the absence of disease- producing microorganisms. Contamination is the process of becoming unclean.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Aseptic Techniques are directed toward maintaining cleanliness and eliminating or preventing contamination. Antiseptic is a substance that destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms on living tissue.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Common Aseptic Techniques Hand washing Good personal hygiene Use of disposable gloves when contacting body secretions or contaminated objects Proper cleaning of instruments and equipment Thorough cleaning of the environment
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Maintaining Medical Asepsis Avoid touching your clothing with soiled linen, table paper, supplies, or instruments. Roll used table paper or linens inward with the clean surface outward. Always consider the floor to be contaminated. Any item dropped onto the floor must be considered dirty and discarded or cleaned to its former level of asepsis before being used. Clean tables, counters, and other surfaces frequently and immediately after contamination. Clean areas are less likely than dirty ones to harbor microorganisms or encourage their growth. Always presume that blood and body fluids from any source are contaminated. Follow OSHA and CDC guidelines to protect yourself and to prevent the transmission of disease.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Four Main Classes of Infection and Disease Endogenous Exogenous Nosocomial Opportunistic
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Endogenous Endogenous infections or disease originate within the body. Examples of endogenous infections or disease include metabolic disorders, congenital abnormalities, tumors, and microorganisms within the body.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Exogenous Exogenous infections or disease originate outside the body. Examples of exogenous infections or disease include pathogenic organisms that invade the body, radiation, chemical agents, trauma, electric shock, and temperature extremes.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Nosocomial Nosocomial infections are acquired during a stay in a health agency such as a hospital or long-term care facility. Nosocomial infections are usually present in the facility and transmitted by health care workers to the patient. Nosocomial infections are caused by normal flora or by microbes transmitted to the person from another source. Many of the pathogens transmitted in this manner are antibiotic- resistant and can cause serious and even life-threatening infections in patients. Some examples of nosocomial infections include staphylococcus, pseudomonas, and enterococci.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Opportunistic Opportunistic infections are those that occur when the body’s defenses are weak. Opportunistic infections normally do not occur in individuals with intact immune systems. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or Kaposi’s sarcoma in individuals with AIDS.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Requirements for Transmission of Microorganisms A causative agent or pathogen is needed. A reservoir (host) is required, which includes human body, animals, the environment and fomites. Fomites are objects contaminated with infectious material that contains the pathogen. Examples of fomites include doorknobs, bedpans, urinals, linens, instruments, and specimen containers.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Modes of Transmission Blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions Direct contact Animals Bites Contact Insects Bites Wound dressings Non-frequent dressing changes Non-sterile practices during dressing changes Direct contact Shaking hands Kissing
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Modes of Transmission, cont. Personal items Toothbrush Comb Eating and drinking utensils Silverware Drinking glassware Water Food Air Coughing, sneezing, talking, laughing, singing
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Body Defenses in Fighting Infection/Disease Mucous membrane Mucous membranes line the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts and trap pathogens. Cilia Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that line the respiratory tract and propel pathogens out of the body. Coughing and sneezing Hydrochloric acid It destroys pathogens in the stomach
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Body Defenses in Fighting Infection/Disease, cont. Tears in the eye Tears contain bacteriocidal chemicals. Fever Many organisms cannot survive at body temperatures above normal. Inflammation Leukocytes, or white blood cells, destroy pathogens. Immune response The body produces antibodies, which are protective proteins that combat pathogens. Interferon and complement are protective chemicals secreted by cells.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology How are the three levels of aseptic control similar and different?
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Antisepsis Antiseptics prevent or inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms but are noteffective against spores and viruses. Antiseptics can usually be used on the skin. Examples of antiseptics include alcohol and betadine.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Disinfection Disinfectants destroy or kill pathogenic organisms but are not always effective against spores and viruses. Chemical disinfectants are used in disinfection. Disinfectants can damage or irritate the skin and are mainly used on objects, not people. Examples of disinfectants include bleach solutions and zephirin.
IL CTE- Health Science & Technology Sterilization Sterilization is a process that destroys all microorganisms, both pathogenic and non- pathogenic, including spores and viruses. Examples of sterilization procedures include steam under pressure, gas, radiation, and chemicals. These procedures are used on equipment or objects, not on people. The autoclave is the most common piece of equipment used for sterilization.