Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have melded into a diverse and economically strong nation.
2 Section 1: History and Government of Canada French and British settlement greatly influenced Canada’s political development.Canada’s size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution.
3 The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Early PeoplesAfter Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge from Asiaancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos); North American Indians to southVikings found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000; later abandon
4 The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Colonization by France and BritainFrench explorers claim much of Canada in 1500–1600s as “New France”British settlers colonize the Atlantic CoastCoastal fisheries and inland fur trade important to both countriesBritain wins French and Indian War (1754–1763); French settlers stay
5 Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provincesUpper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, ProtestantLower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman CatholicRupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading companyImmigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Torontorailways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas
6 Establishing the Dominion of Canada Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Actcreates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union)Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswickself-governed part of British EmpireExpansion includes:Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Islandlater: Yukon Territory, Alberta, SaskatchewanNewfoundland in 1949
7 Continental Expansion and Development From the Atlantic to the PacificIn 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to VancouverEuropean immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunterscopper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads
8 Urban and Industrial Growth Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturingwithin 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportationCanada becomes major economic power in 20th century
9 Governing Canada The Parliamentary System In 1931 Canada becomes independent, British monarch is symbolic headParliamentary government:parliament—legislature combining legislative and executive functionsconsists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commonsprime minister, head of government, is majority party leaderAll ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister)federal government administers the territoriesStephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada.
10 Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies.Canadians are a diverse people.WinnipegTorontoVancouver
11 An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Early Fur TradeBeginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations:begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coastFrench and English trappers and traders expand westwardVoyageurs—French-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts
12 Canada’s Primary Industries Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic productCanada is the world’s leading exporter of forest productsMining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exportedFishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported
13 The Manufacturing Sector 15% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDPmake cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining)centered in heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario
14 Service Industries Drive the Economy Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDPfinance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insuranceland’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing serviceHeavy trade with U.S.: same language, open border (world’s longest)1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico85% of Canadian exports go to U.S.75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S.
15 Bonjour! Hello! A Land of Many Cultures Languages and Religions Mixing of French and native peoples created métis cultureBilingual: English is most common, except in French-speaking QuebecEnglish Protestants and French Catholics dominate, but often clashincreasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groupsBonjour!Hello!
16 Canada’s PopulationDensest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlandsEnvironment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border)Urbanization: in % of people lived in cities, today it’s 80%Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas75% of French Canadians live in Quebecmany native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for themmost Inuits live in the remote Arctic northmany Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast
18 Life in Canada Today Employment and Education Relatively high standard of living, well-educated populationLabor force is 55% men, 45% women75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturingOldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by FrenchEnglish universities founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780sToday, Canada has a 97% literacy rate
19 Sports and RecreationPopular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, huntingCanada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leaguesnative peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockeyAnnual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede
20 The ArtsEarliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoplesLater writings from settlers, missionaries, explorersEarly visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem polesEarly 1900s painting: unique style of Toronto’s Group of SevenShakespeare honored at Ontario’s world-famous Stratford Festival
21 Section 3: Sub regions of Canada Canada is divided into four sub regions: the Atlantic, Core, Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and then the Territories.Each sub region possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life.
22 The Atlantic Provinces Harsh Lands and Small PopulationsEastern Canada’s Atlantic Provinces:Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, NewfoundlandOnly 8% of Canada’s population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weatherMost people live in coastal cities such as:Halifax, Nova ScotiaSt. John, New Brunswick85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil90% of New Brunswick is forestedNewfoundland has severe storms
23 Economic ActivitiesNew Brunswick’s largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper)Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for exportNova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through HalifaxNewfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, hydro-electric powersupplies power to Quebec, parts of northeastern U.S.
24 The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario The Heartland of CanadaQuebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 160860% Canada’s population live in Core Provinces Ontario and QuebecOntario has largest population; Quebec has largest land area
25 Canada’s Political and Economic Center Ottawa, Ontario is the national capitalQuebec has great political importance in French-Canadian lifeCore: 35% of Canada’s crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturingToronto the largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest cityThe Rideau Canal in Ottawa freezes during the winter, and is used for ice skating!
26 The Prairie Provinces Canada’s Breadbasket Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta50% of Canada’s agricultural production, 60% of mineral outputAlberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canada’s natural gas
27 A Cultural MixManitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, PolesSaskatchewan’s population includes Asian immigrants, MétisAlberta’s diversity includes Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
28 The Pacific Province and the Territories British ColumbiaBritish Columbia—westernmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciersMost people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, VancouverEconomy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric powerVancouver is Canada’s largest port, has prosperous shipping trade
29 The TerritoriesThe three northern territories account for 41% of Canada’s landSparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climateYukon has population of 30,000; mostly wildernessNorthwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into ArcticNunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to InuitTerritories’ economies include mining, fishing, some logging
30 BibliographyMcdougal Littell, World Geography. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2012