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Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness

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1 Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness
Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have melded into a diverse and economically strong nation.

2 Section 1: History and Government of Canada
French and British settlement greatly influenced Canada’s political development. Canada’s size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution.

3 The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Early Peoples After Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge from Asia ancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos); North American Indians to south Vikings found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000; later abandon

4 The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Colonization by France and Britain French explorers claim much of Canada in 1500–1600s as “New France” British settlers colonize the Atlantic Coast Coastal fisheries and inland fur trade important to both countries Britain wins French and Indian War (1754–1763); French settlers stay

5 Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada
In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman Catholic Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas

6 Establishing the Dominion of Canada
Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick self-governed part of British Empire Expansion includes: Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan Newfoundland in 1949

7 Continental Expansion and Development
From the Atlantic to the Pacific In 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads

8 Urban and Industrial Growth
Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century

9 Governing Canada The Parliamentary System
In 1931 Canada becomes independent, British monarch is symbolic head Parliamentary government: parliament—legislature combining legislative and executive functions consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons prime minister, head of government, is majority party leader All ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister) federal government administers the territories Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada.

10 Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada
Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies. Canadians are a diverse people. Winnipeg Toronto Vancouver

11 An Increasingly Diverse Economy
The Early Fur Trade Beginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations: begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coast French and English trappers and traders expand westward Voyageurs—French-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts

12 Canada’s Primary Industries
Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported

13 The Manufacturing Sector
15% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDP make cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining) centered in heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario

14 Service Industries Drive the Economy
Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance land’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, open border (world’s longest) 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S. 75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S.

15 Bonjour! Hello! A Land of Many Cultures Languages and Religions
Mixing of French and native peoples created métis culture Bilingual: English is most common, except in French-speaking Quebec English Protestants and French Catholics dominate, but often clash increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups Bonjour! Hello!

16 Canada’s Population Densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands Environment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border) Urbanization: in % of people lived in cities, today it’s 80% Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast


18 Life in Canada Today Employment and Education
Relatively high standard of living, well-educated population Labor force is 55% men, 45% women 75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturing Oldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by French English universities founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780s Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate

19 Sports and Recreation Popular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting Canada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leagues native peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockey Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede

20 The Arts Earliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoples Later writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem poles Early 1900s painting: unique style of Toronto’s Group of Seven Shakespeare honored at Ontario’s world-famous Stratford Festival

21 Section 3: Sub regions of Canada
Canada is divided into four sub regions: the Atlantic, Core, Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and then the Territories. Each sub region possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life.

22 The Atlantic Provinces
Harsh Lands and Small Populations Eastern Canada’s Atlantic Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland Only 8% of Canada’s population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weather Most people live in coastal cities such as: Halifax, Nova Scotia St. John, New Brunswick 85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil 90% of New Brunswick is forested Newfoundland has severe storms

23 Economic Activities New Brunswick’s largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper) Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for export Nova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through Halifax Newfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, hydro-electric power supplies power to Quebec, parts of northeastern U.S.

24 The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario
The Heartland of Canada Quebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 1608 60% Canada’s population live in Core Provinces Ontario and Quebec Ontario has largest population; Quebec has largest land area

25 Canada’s Political and Economic Center
Ottawa, Ontario is the national capital Quebec has great political importance in French-Canadian life Core: 35% of Canada’s crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturing Toronto the largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest city The Rideau Canal in Ottawa freezes during the winter, and is used for ice skating!

26 The Prairie Provinces Canada’s Breadbasket
Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta 50% of Canada’s agricultural production, 60% of mineral output Alberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canada’s natural gas

27 A Cultural Mix Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles Saskatchewan’s population includes Asian immigrants, Métis Alberta’s diversity includes Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese

28 The Pacific Province and the Territories
British Columbia British Columbia—westernmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains 1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers Most people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, Vancouver Economy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric power Vancouver is Canada’s largest port, has prosperous shipping trade

29 The Territories The three northern territories account for 41% of Canada’s land Sparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climate Yukon has population of 30,000; mostly wilderness Northwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into Arctic Nunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to Inuit Territories’ economies include mining, fishing, some logging

30 Bibliography Mcdougal Littell, World Geography. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2012

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