Presentation on theme: "Developing a vast wilderness"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing a vast wilderness Chapter 7Developing a vast wilderness
2 The first settlers and colonial rivalry 7.1 The story of Canada is of the fierce rivalry between the two European Nations that first colonized it—and their conflict with the First Nations peopleDuring the 16th and 17th centuries, French explorers claimed much of CanadaWith the British claims on the Atlantic coast, these countries were drawn into conflict for global empireThe French and Indian War ( ), part of a larger “Seven Years War”, placed the British as the superior power in the regionFrench settlers remained
3 Steps toward unityBy the end of the 18th century, continuing conflict between English and French settlers led to division into two provinces:Upper Canada (Ontario): near the Great Lakes and English-speakingLower Canada (Quebec): along the St. Lawrence River and French-speakingContinuing conflict led to reform:In 1867, the British North American Act crated the Dominion of CanadaThis was to be a loose confederation of Ontario, Quebec and two British colonies along the Atlantic coast, Nova Scotia and New BrunswickThe Dominion had self-government, but remained part of the British Empire, with Ottawa as its capital.
5 Continental expansion and development In 1872, the government began to build a transcontinental railway, completed in 1885Montreal to VancouverUnlike in the US, where settlement preceded the railroads, in Canada the railroad was a catalyst for initial settlement of much of the westIn the 1890s gold was found in the Yukon, bringing many fortune hunters to CanadaNot long after discoveries of copper, zinc and silver deposits prompted the building of new railroadsNew immigrants began to populate the west
6 Urban and industrial growth With the coming of the industrial age, Canada became more urban and industrialCities sprang up wherever farming was possibleLater, these became industrial and service centers, drawing more people to themMost of Canada’s people live within 100 miles of the US borderBetter climate, more productive land, and better transportation linking east and west
7 Canada has a Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy The country became fully independent in 1931The legislative and executive functions are combined in the parliamentThe head of the majority party in Parliament is the prime ministerThe symbolic head of government is the Queen, represented by the Governor GeneralEach of the provinces has its own legislature and premier—the federal government administers the territories.
8 An increasingly diverse economy 7.2 Canada possesses many natural resourcesThey formed the basis for its early economic strengthUranium, zinc, gold, silver are among their many mineral resourcesVast forests allow Canada to be a leader in the production of newsprint from wood pulpAlthough only 5% of Canada’s land is suitable for farming, it is one of the world’s agricultural leading exporters of agricultural productsCanada has been a leading exporter of fish, but recently, overfishing has caused supplies the decline.
9 More Economy Manufacturing employs about 17% of Canada’s labor force Products: Automobiles, steel, household appliances, electronics, and high-tech and mining equipmentManufacturing is concentrated in the “Heartland” from Quebec to Windsor (next to Detroit)70% of Canada’s GDP comes from service industriesThe United States is Canada’s leading trading partner
10 A land of many cultures Like the USA, Canada is nation of immigrants Early blend of French and native peoples gave birth to another culture, the metis people of mixed French and native heritageThe current cultural richness has come from all parts of the worldCanada has two official languages: English and FrenchMost English Canadians are Anglican; most French Canadians are CatholicReligious freedom is guaranteed by the ConstitutionMost Canadians live within 100 miles of the US borderCanada’s population is just over 30 million80% live in cities,75% of French Canadians live in Quebec, many native peoples are found on reserves, the Inuit live in the north, many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on the west coast
11 Life in Canada today Most Canadians enjoy a high standard of living Canada leads the world in college attendanceLike Americans, Canadians value their leisure timeHunting, fishing, skiing, skating, ice hockey and golf are all popularThey enjoy their professional sports teamsHockey is a major sportCanadian Football LeagueBlue Jays, RaptorsLacrosse is a sport developed by native cultureArts: Inuit carvings and Totem Poles were early art formsCanada currently enjoys a vibrant arts sector
12 The Atlantic Provinces 7.3 Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and NewfoundlandMost people live in coastal areas and depend upon the sea for their living
13 The Core Provinces-Quebec and Ontario Referred to as Canada’s heartland3 of 5 Canadians live in these two provincesMost settlement is along the St. Lawrence River and the Great LakesThese provinces are the center of Canada’s political and economic lifeToronto and Montreal are Canada’s two largest cities
14 The Prairie Provinces Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta Canada’s BreadbasketAlso rich in Mineral resources
15 The Pacific Province and the Territories Most of British Columbia’s population live in the Southwest, near VancouverVancouver is Canada’s largest portIt’s capital, Victoria, is on Vancouver IslandThe rest is mountainous, forested, or too coldYukon is largely unspoiled wildernessThe Northwest Territory lies to the eastNunavut was carved out of the Northwest Territory in 1999Home to the Inuit