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Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness

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1 Chapter 7 Human Geography of Canada: Developing a Vast Wilderness
Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have molded into a diverse and economically strong nation.

2 Chapter 7 Section 1: History and Government of Canada
Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada Section 3: Subregions of Canada

3 Section 1: History and Government of Canada
• French and British settlement greatly influenced Canada’s political development. • Canada’s size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution.

4 Section 1: History and Government of Canada
The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Early Peoples • After Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge from Asia - ancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos) go North, while North American Indians go south • Vikings would found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000, but would later abandon

5 The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Colonization by France and Britain • French explorers claim much of Canada in 1500–1600s as “New France” • While the British settlers colonized the Atlantic Coast • Coastal fisheries and inland fur trade were important to both countries though. • Britain wins French and Indian War, so the French surrender their land, but (1754–1763); French settlers stay

6 Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada • In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces due to two distinct cultures: - Upper Canada (Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman Catholic • Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company • Immigrants would arrive and cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto - railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas

7 Continued Steps Toward Unity
Establishing the Dominion of Canada • Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act - This act creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) - Originally included:Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick - It was a self-governed part of British Empire • Eventually Expansion includes: - Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island - And later it would add: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and eventually Newfoundland in 1949

8 Continental Expansion and Development
From the Atlantic to the Pacific • With so much more land to settle Canada went about making the land more accessible by building roads, canals and railroads • In 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver • European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters - Copper, zinc, silver also found; This leads to growing railroads and towns. Urban and Industrial Growth • Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing - Especially within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, and available transportation. • Canada even becomes major economic power in 20th century

9 Governing Canada The Parliamentary System • In 1931 Canada becomes independent, although the British monarch is still a symbolic head • Parliamentary government: - parliament—legislature combining legislative and executive functions - consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons - prime minister, head of government, is majority party leader • All ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister) - federal government administers the territories

10 Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada
• Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies. • Canadians are a diverse people.

11 Section 2: Economy and Culture of Canada
An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Early Fur Trade • Beginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations: begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coast • French and English trappers and traders expand westward • Voyageurs—French-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts

12 Continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
Canada’s Primary Industries These include: • Farming, logging, mining, fishing: - Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products • Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported around the world • Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported

13 Continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
The Manufacturing Sector • 13% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/6 of GDP - They make cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining) - Most manufacturing is centered in the heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario.

14 A Land of Many Cultures Languages and Religions Canada is a nation of many cultures • The Mixing of French and native peoples created métis culture • Canada is bilingual: English is most common language, except in French-speaking Quebec. • English Protestants and French Catholics dominate, Canada but they often clash over religion and culture. So the Canadian government promotes cultural diversity. - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups have starting arising in Canada.

15 Continued A Land of Many Cultures
Canada’s Population It is influenced by climate and land. • Densest population is in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands • The Environment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border) • Urbanization: in % of people lived in cities, today it’s 80% • Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas of Canada: - 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reserves — public land set aside for them - most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast

16 Life in Canada Today Employment and Education • Relatively high standard of living, well-educated population Some facts about Life in Canada: • Labor force is 55% men, 45% women - 75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturing • Oldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by French during settlement. • English universities were founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780s • Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate

17 Continued Life in Canada Today
Sports and Recreation • Popular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting - Canada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leagues - native peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockey • Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede (rodeo).

18 Continued Life in Canada Today
The Arts • Earliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoples • Later writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers • Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem poles • Early 1900s painting: unique style of Toronto’s Group of Seven • Shakespeare honored at Ontario’s world-famous Stratford Festival

19 Section 3: Subregions of Canada
• Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. • It then can be divided into four subregions from these provinces and regions: the Atlantic, Core, and Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and the Territories. • Each subregion possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life.

20 Section 3: Subregions of Canada
The Atlantic Provinces Harsh Lands and Small Populations • Eastern Canada’s Atlantic Provinces are: - Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland • Only 8% of Canada’s population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weather • Most people live in coastal cities such as: - Halifax, Nova Scotia - St. John, New Brunswick • 85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil • 90% of New Brunswick is forested • Newfoundland has severe storms

21 Continued The Atlantic Provinces
Economic Activities The people of the Atlantic Provinces have learned to used what the environment gives them such as: • New Brunswick’s largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper) • Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for export • Nova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through Halifax • Newfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, and hydro-electric power, which supplies power to Quebec and parts of northeastern U.S.

22 The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario
The Heartland of Canada • Quebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 1608 • 3/5 ofCanada’s population lives in Core Provinces Ontario and Quebec - Ontario (english speaking) has largest population; Quebec (french speaking) has largest land area.

23 Continued The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario
Canada’s Political and Economic Center • Ottawa, Ontario is the national capital • Quebec has great political importance in French-Canadian life • The Core: 35% of Canada’s crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturing • Toronto the largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest city.

24 The Prairie Provinces Canada’s Breadbasket: • West of Ontario and Quebec • Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta • 50% of Canada’s agricultural production, 60% of mineral output - Alberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canada’s natural gas

25 Continued The Prairie Provinces
A Cultural Mix • Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles • Saskatchewan’s population includes Asian immigrants and métis • Alberta’s diversity includes European, Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese peoples.

26 The Pacific Province and the Territories
British Columbia • British Columbia—westernmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains - 1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers • Most people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, Vancouver • Economy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric power - Vancouver is Canada’s largest port, has prosperous shipping trade

27 Continued The Pacific Province and the Territories
The Territories • The three northern territories account for 41% of Canada’s land • Sparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climate - Yukon has population of 30,000; mostly wilderness - Northwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into Arctic - Nunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to Inuit • Territories’ economies include mining, fishing, some logging

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