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Chapter 7 Developing a Vast Wilderness

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1 Chapter 7 Developing a Vast Wilderness
History & Government of Canada Section 1

2 I. The First Settlers & Colonial Rivalry
Cold climate and early migrations and the bitter territorial rivalry between the two European nations affected its development. England & France—and their conflict with the First Nations peoples. Atlas: look and compare

3 1. Early People: People from Asia began moving into North America across an Arctic land. They were the ancestors of the Inuit (or Eskimos). 2. Colonization by France & Britain: During the 16th & 17th centuries, French explorers claimed much of Canada. It was known as New France. The British were colonizing North American along the Atlantic coast. Both, the French & British went war & Britain defeated France in the French & Indian War ( ).

4 II. Steps Toward Unity By the end of the 18th century, Canada had become a land of two distinct cultures—Roman Catholic & Protestant English. Great conflicts among the two groups—1791 the British Government split Canada into two provinces. Upper Canada (later Ontario) & Lower Canada (Quebec).

5 1. Establishing the Dominion of Canada:
Over the next decades conflicts between English speaking & French-speaking settlers had not ended. Political & ethnic disputes in both Upper and Lower Canada. The British Govt. in 1867 passed the British North America Act creating the Dominion of Canada. It was to be a loose confederation or political union. Each one would be self-government but would remained part of the British Empire. Ottawa in Ontario, became the Capital. Territorial and growth file.

6 III. Continental Expansion & Development
With so much area to settle, Canada set about making its land accessible to pioneers. Successful settlement of the west would depend on good transportation routes: roads, canals, & railroads. Climate & vegetation file.

7 1. From the Atlantic to the Pacific: In 1872, the government began construction of a transcontinental railroad. In 1885, the main line was completed, Montreal to Vancouver. Gold, copper, zinc, & silver deposits were discovered. Immigrants came from others parts of Europe. 2. Urban & industrial growth: most of the time after settlement Canadians live in rural areas & engaged in farming. But because of as the population grew & natural resources were developed, Canada became more urban & industrial. Most of this took place within 100 miles of the U.S. border. Warmer climate, land more productive & transportation linking east & west. Agricultural & resources

8 IV. Governing Canada Canada was recognized as an independent nation by Britain in 1931. Like Great Britain, it has a Parliamentary Government. A system in which legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature called a parliament. Even through Canada’s is independent, its symbolic head of state remains the British monarch. Parliament consists of an appointed Senate & an elected House of Commons. The majority party’s leader in Parliament becomes Prime Minister, or head of government.

9 Economy and Culture of Canada
Section 2 Economy and Culture of Canada

10 I. An Increasingly Diverse Economy
Canada is one of the world’s richest countries. It is highly industrialized and urbanized. It is based on the trade of its many natural resources. File on comparing subregions of Canada

11 Major sectors of Economy in the U.S., Same as in Canada, file
1. Canada’s primary industries: Farming, logging, mining, & fishing are important Canadian industries. Canada’s biggest export trade is in forest products. Mining is also important because of its uranium, zinc, gold, & silver. 3 ocean coastlines—Atlantic, Pacific, & Arctic give them access to enough fish supplies 2. The Manufacturing Sector: 15% of Canadians earn their living from manufacturing. Cars, steel, household appliances, electronics, & high-tech & mining equipment are just some of the things they produce. It is done in Canadian heartland, Quebec city, Windsor, Ontario. Major sectors of Economy in the U.S., Same as in Canada, file

12 3. Service industries drive the economy: Canada’s service industries are the country’s real economic powerhouse. Accounts for 60% of the GDP. They include finance, utilities, trade, transportation, tourism, communications, insurance, and real estate. Tourism is great because of its natural beauty. Canada & U.S. are chief trading partner because they share the longest border the same language—English. 1994 signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

13 II. A Land of Many Cultures
From its earliest settlement, Canada has been a land of diverse cultures. First settlers were the Inuit & First Nations people, then came the English & French. Interaction between the French & native people created the Metis people. Mixed race. Most recent immigrants come from Europe and Asia. Like the U.S., Canada’s cultures come all over the World.

14 1. Languages & Religion: It is a bilingual country
1. Languages & Religion: It is a bilingual country. English is the majority & French is the minority language. The language of First Nation people & native language of immigrants. English are Protestant & French are Roman Catholics, they still continue to dominate. But Muslims, Jews, & other religious groups are also represented. 2. Canada’s Population: Population have always been influence by climate & transportation. Canada’s port cities are most densely settled areas. It’s population has become urban. 75% of all French Canadians reside in Quebec. Native people live in reserves public land in the Arctic North.

15 III. Life in Canada Today
Most Canadians live active personal & professional lives & enjoy a relatively high standard of living. Labor force is nearly split between men & women. Canada’s population is well educated. Canada boasts a 97 literacy rate.

16 1. Sports & recreation: Skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, & hunting.
Professional sports teams, football league, ice hockey, baseball, & basketball teams that complete in the U.S. Their love of sport goes back to native people who developed the game Lacrosse & European settlers who develop ice hockey. 2. The Arts: It long history has given Canada rich artistic heritage. Oral history of the First Nation & the writing of settlers. Visual arts includes the realistic carvings of the Inuit & the decorated totem poles of the First Nations. In the 20th century a group of Toronto based artists called the Group of Seven which worked in a uniquely Canadian style of painting.

17 Section 3 Subregions of Canada

18 I. The Atlantic Provinces
Canada is divided into ten provinces & three territories. Eastern Canada is the location of the four Atlantic Provinces—Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, & Newfoundland.

19 1. Harsh lands & small populations: Only 8% of Canada population live here, largely to the provinces rugged terrain & severe weather. Most live in coastal cities such as Halifax, Nova Scotia, & St. John. 2. Economic Activities: Despite the harsh conditions, the people have learn to adapt to what the land & sea offers. Forest=logging=produces lumber, wood pulp, & paper products. Gulf of St. Lawrence & coastal provide fish. Nova Scotia boasts one of the largest fish processing plants. Also provides a high employable port in Halifax. Hydroelectric power.

20 II. The Core Provinces—Quebec & Ontario
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer, built a fort, at present day Quebec City.

21 1. The Heartland of Canada: Quebec & Ontario are refer to the Heartland of Canada.
3 out of 5 Canadians live there. Ontario has largest population & Quebec in land area. Large speaking English live in Ontario & French in Quebec. 2. Canada’s Political & Economic Center: Quebec & Ontario are the center for both economic & political. Together the account for more then 35% of agricultural, 45% of its mineral output, & 70% of its manufacturing. Toronto is also the most popular city & also its banking & financial hub.

22 The Prairie Provinces To the west of the hustle & bustle of Ontario & Quebec lie the Prairie Provinces—Manitoba, Saskatchewan, & Alberta.

23 Canada’s Breadbasket: The Prairie Provinces are part of the Great Plains of North America. The are center of the nation’s agricultural. Its also more then fertile soil, 60% of Canada’s minerals come there. 2. A cultural Mix: The Prairie Provinces are a diverse group of people. Its has Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, & Poles. St. Boniface has French & Saskatchewan is home to Asians & metis. Alberta has Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, & Vietnamese populations.

24 IV. The Pacific Province and the Territories
The province of British Columbia along with the three territories– Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, & Nunavut– make up Canada’s western & northern lands.

25 1. British Columbia: It is the westernmost province
1. British Columbia: It is the westernmost province. It all lies within the Rocky mts. Range, because of it lies 3000 fts. Above sea level. More than ½ is densely forested, & nearly 33% of it is frozen tundra, snowfields, & glaciers. Economy is built on logging, mining, & hydroelectric-power. Vancouver is Canada’s largest port.

26 2. The Territories: The 3 territories make up 41% of Canada’s land mass.
Nunavut was carved out of the Northwest Territories in It is home to the Inuit. Traditional economy. Mostly mining, fishing, & logging.

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