Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Culture and Social Culture"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 1: Culture and Social Culture Chapter 3:Cultural Conformity and Adaptation
2 1770’s Important Virtues According to Ben Franklin Pg 43 How many of you agree that these virtues are important?How many of you embody some of these virtues?What do you think are core American values today?
3 Sec 1: The American Value System Robin M. Williams’ study American Society analyzed American values.He identified 15 that are central to the American way of life.Ex:Personal achievement, individualism, work, morality and humanitarianism, efficiency and practicality, progress and material comfort, equality and democracy, and freedom
4 Let’s talk about these! Personal achievement individualism work morality and humanitarianismefficiency and practicalityprogress and material comfortequality and democracyfreedom
5 Other Core American Values Williams also identified:Nationalism and patriotism, science and rationality, and racial and group superiority.What about:Education, religious values, romantic loveDo we all agree about what should be an American value?
6 Newly identified American values: Leisure, personal fitness, youthfulnessSelf-fulfillmentA commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential.Seen in self-help and human-potential movementSeminars, TV programs, Dr. Phil, Health Clubs, Diet Programs
7 Problems with self-fulfillment: Narcissism – social historian Christopher LaschMeans extreme self-centerednessWhat do you think? Is self-fulfillment dangerous to our other values?Other trends towards new values:Environment… how?Can you think of any others?
8 Case Study Advertisements How do advertisements promote American Values?
9 Assignment: Can work together! Create an ad (for anything) promoting not only the product but American values as well.
10 Section 2: Social Control For society to run smoothly, some norms must be upheld.Two ways norms are upheld:InternalizationSanctions
11 Internalization of Norms People come to believe that a particular norm is good, useful, and appropriate, they generally follow it and expect others to do the same.They have internalized it:The process by which a norm becomes part of an individual’s personality…conditions the individual to conform to society’s expectations.Think of any???Traffic light red, you stop
12 SanctionsMany people follow norms without thinking about it… but not everyone internalizes.Some people are motivated by sanctions.Sanctions:Rewards or punishments to enforce conformity to norms.Positive, negative, formal, and informal
13 Positive Negative Sanctions Sanctions An action that rewards a particular kind of behavior.Encouraging conformityEx: parents praising kid for good behaviorEx: teacher giving good grade for work turned in on timeEx: ceremonies, ribbons, awards, etc.If not reinforced, loses effectivenessUsed to discourage undesired behavior.Punishment or threat of punishment used to enforce conformity.Ex: “your car will be towed”… I won’t park thereEx: frowns, ridicule, rejection, fines, imprisonment, etc.
14 Formal Informal Sanctions Sanctions Reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency (school, business, gov’t).Negative – low grades, suspension, being fired, imprisonment.Positive – pay raises, diplomas, promotion, etc.Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or a group.Positive – standing ovations, compliments, smiles, gifts, etc.Negative – frowns, gossips, insults, ostracism.Effective among teens b/c social acceptance is so important.
15 Laws Rules that are enforced and sanctioned by the gov’t. May or may not be normsVery often, important mores (strong moral connections) of society become laws and are enforced by agencies of the government.If laws cease to be supported by norms and values, they are usually stricken or not enforced.Any historical examples?Not all laws are supported by the public; in fact, many have come into existence as the result of lobbying by powerful interest groups.
16 Laws (cont.)Laws requiring the wearing of seat belts, for example, are not a response to social norms, but rather from insurance companies.Laws regulating marijuana use in the US owe their origins to lobbying by the liquor industry.In these cases, laws are trying to create norms rather than respond to them.
17 LawsNot all laws represent the norms of all people in a particular society.This is why laws will continue to change, because society continues to change.Political involvement plug
18 In class assignment! Get with one or two buddies Compile a list of ten laws that you think are the absolute most important laws ever!Come up with three laws that should be done away withYou have 10 minutesWe will share these as a class
19 What is the most severe sanction our nation uses? Capital PunishmentLet’s talk about that!
20 Social controlDef: The enforcing of norms through either internal or external meansNeed self-control…learned through internalization of normsMany agents of social control perform external enforcement through the use of sanctions.Ex: police, court system, religion, family, public opinionWhat would happen if people did not follow rules of behavior and norms?
21 Section 3: Social Change The more cultural traits you have, the more potential for change.EX: The emergence of the car in AmericaProvided new form of transportation, employment, and affected how people shopped, where they lived, and what they did with leisure time.Modern world changes each week:New material goods, styles of dress, ways of doing things, and ideasSix factors stimulate social change:Values and beliefs, technology, population, diffusion, the physical environment, & wars and conquests
22 Values & Beliefs: Factors of Social Change Ideology:System of beliefs or ideas that justifies the social, moral, religious, political or economic interests held by a group or by society.Often spread through social movements:Long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change.Involve large numbers of peopleEx: Prohibition, women’s rights, civil rights, gay rights, environmental movement, etc.Ex: did the civil rights movement change politics?What social movement would you join, or start, today?
23 Technology: As a factor of social change Knowledge and tools that people use to manipulate their environment.New technology arises in two ways:DiscoveryWhen people recognize new uses for existing elements in the world or begin to understand them in new waysInventionWhen people use existing knowledge to create something that did not previously exists.Material and nonmaterial inventions
24 Population: As a factor of social change Since the 1900’s, our population has risen rapidly.New people, new culture, new ideasCultural diffusion – what do you eat for dinner?Affects the economy:Increasing populationMore demand for foods and services, increase employment and stimulate economyCrowded conditionsMore energy, food, housing, schools, stores, transportDeclining popNeed fewer goods and services, limited employmentWhat is the average age?
25 Diffusion: As a factor of social change Process of spreading culture traits from one society to anotherWhy does more diffusion take place today than 100 years ago?Some cultural traits spread more rapidly than others:Material culture and technology (examples?)Reformulation – the process of adapting borrowed cultural traits (pg. 57 Sesame Street)Read Case Study pg 59
26 The Physical Environment: As a factor of social change Our environment provides conditions that may encourage or discourage cultural change.Some foods only grow locally, some people import lots of things, etc.Natural disasters – how do these bring about change?Change in natural resources supplyEx: our shortages in oil… how is that changing our society?
27 Wars & Conquests: As factors of social change Not as common as other factors, but bring about the greatest change in the least amount of time.Loss of life, destruction of property, rise of new cities, changes to economy to focus on war industry
28 Resistance to Change: “There is comfort in consistency.” Believe it or not… some people don’t like changeSocial changes often result from a compromise b/t opposing forces.After a while some will accept a change they initially opposed or some may accept the idea but never adaptReasons people resist cultural change:Ethnocentrism, cultural lag, and vested interests
29 Resisting change: Ethnocentrism Change that comes from outside a society often meets with really strong resistancePeople think their way, is the best way…same with their cultureEx: “Buy American” campaign in 1970’s and 80’sTargeted Japanese cars
30 Resisting change: Cultural Lag When a cultural trait takes a while to changeMaterial culture changes quicker than nonmaterial culture.EX: technological change often results in cultural lagTV change coming in Feb; lap tops in the classroomEx: school year1800’s schools needed long summer breaks so kids could work on farms.So, who spent their summer plowing, planting, milking, etc.Why not stop having summer?Cherokee county, Save our Summers com.
31 Resisting change: Vested Interest If a person likes the way things are, they will likely resist changeSome people feel the present is better than the futureThey want to protect their lifeThey have a vested interest in thatEx: Some workers may dislike new machines b/c it could take their jobPoliticians