I NTERNALIZATION OF N ORMS There are two main ways in which norms are enforced– internalization and sanctions. An individual’s following of a norm without actively thinking is internalization. Process by which a norm becomes part of an individual’s daily conditioned behavior. Sanctions= rewards or punishments used to enforce the conformity to norms.
T YPES OF S ANCTIONS Positive sanctions= an action that rewards a particular kind of behavior. Examples: parents praising children; cheering when your team hits the game-winning shot, etc. Negative sanctions= punishment, or the threat of punishment used to ensure conformity. The more important the norm, the more serious the negative sanction. Examples: Fear of being towed; frowns; threat of imprisonment.
T YPES OF S ANCTIONS Formal sanctions= reward or punishment given by a formal organization or agency, such as a school, business or gov. Can be negative or positive. Informal sanctions= spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval. Compliments, smiles, laughing, etc.
E NFORCING N ORMS Social control occurs when norms are enforced either internally or externally. Levels of social control: Self-control Authority figures w/use of sanctions Social order becomes jeopardized when norms are not followed. Societies cannot survive without a system of social control.
W HAT IS IT ? All cultures encounter change at some point in time or another. How quickly a culture changes depends on how many traits it has. Change allows for more change. Functionalists view society as a set of interrelated parts. When a change occurs in one area of society, it leads to changes elsewhere.
S OURCES OF C HANGE - V ALUES AND B ELIEFS Ideology= system of beliefs or ideas that justify the social, moral, religious, political or economic interests of a society. The push for acceptance of an ideology leads to social movements. Long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change. Involve large numbers of people. Examples: civil rights, environmental, women’s rights.
S OURCES OF C HANGE - T ECHNOLOGY AND P OPULATION Technology facilitates change in two ways– discovery and invention. Discovery new uses for existing elements. Invention existing knowledge is used to create something that did not previously exist. As population increases/decreases, the economy and culture of a society adjusts.
S OURCES OF C HANGE - D IFFUSION Diffusion= spreading cultural traits from one society to another. More contact= more traits borrowed. Certain cultural traits (especially technology) spread more rapidly than others. The adaptation of borrowed cultural traits into one’s own culture is known as reformulation.
R ESISTANCE TO C HANGE There is always some form of opposition to social change. Social changes are often the result of societal compromises. Ethnocentrism belief that one’s own culture is superior. Cultural lag= occurs when certain cultural traits change quicker than others. Vested interests if an individual is satisfied with the way things are, they would be against change.