Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Sociology4/14/2017CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and AdaptationChapter 3
2 Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1 Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1. Brainstorm as many words using the prefix “Self” (American in common use today.) 2. What do these words suggest about American Culture?
3 Basic Values of American Culture The American Values SystemSociologist Robin Williams identified a set 15 valuesThat are central to the American Way of Life.Basic Values of American CultureThe American Value SystemPersonal Achievement – evident in the area of employment where achievement is measured in terms of power and wealth.Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative.Work – valued regardless of reward; viewed as sign of virtue.
4 Section 1: The American Values System Morality and Humanitarianism – religious faith, justice and equality. Charity toward the less fortunate.Efficiency and Practicality – every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done.Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve
5 Section 1: The American Values System Equality and Democracy – equal opportunity; right to express opinions and choose representatives in government.Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference.Racism and Group Superiority-themes that periodically lead to prejudice and discrimination against those who are racially, religiously and culturally different from the white, Northern European stock that first settled the continent.
6 What is The American Dream? “A Place at the Table,” video Education- everyone should achieve the highest level of education that his or her abilities will allow.Religious Values- all should live according to basic religious principles, whether or not they belong to a church, mosque or Synagogue.Romantic Love- love should guide marriage decisions.What is The American Dream?“A Place at the Table,” video
7 Our Changing Values Section 1: The American Values System Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness.Narcissism- extreme self-centerednessEnvironmental protection-protect the environment even if it limits economic growth.
8 With your neighbor discuss the following questions: What issues concern you the most?Do your values differ from your parents values? In what ways?Should social values such as morality be taught in public schools?
9 Enforcing the Norms of Society Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations.Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms.
10 Different Types of Sanctions Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise.Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death.
11 Formal Sanctions- Reward or Punishment given by an organization or regulatory agency. Examples: schools, businesses, governmentInformal Sanctions- A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval.Examples: clapping hands, booing.
12 Social Control- enforcing of norms either internalization or sanctions. Figures of authority enforce these norms.example: Principals at high school, police etc.
13 Main Sources of Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeMain Sources of Social ChangeIdeology- system of beliefs or ideas.Social movements- long term effort to promote or prevent social change. Ex: gay rights, civil rights, women’s rights.Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment
14 Section 3: Social Change Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture.Examples: larger population=more competition.Examples: growing immigration= more outside cultural influences.Examples: aging population= different focus on life style (health care)Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another.Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change.Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time.
15 Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeFactors Leading to Resisting Social ChangeEthnocentrism – belief that one’s culture is better than another culture.Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers.Vested Interests – A person who is satisfied with the way things are likely to resist change. They have a vested interest in the way things are.