Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation."— Presentation transcript:
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1. Brainstorm as many words using the prefix “Self” (American in common use today.) 2. What do these words suggest about American Culture? 2
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Basic Values of American Culture The American Value System Personal Achievement – evident in the area of employment where achievement is measured in terms of power and wealth. Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative. Work – valued regardless of reward; viewed as sign of virtue. 3 The American Values System Sociologist Robin Williams identified a set 15 values That are central to the American Way of Life.
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Morality and Humanitarianism – religious faith, justice and equality. Charity toward the less fortunate. Efficiency and Practicality – every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done. Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve 4 Section 1: The American Values System
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Equality and Democracy – equal opportunity; right to express opinions and choose representatives in government. Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference. Racism and Group Superiority-themes that periodically lead to prejudice and discrimination against those who are racially, religiously and culturally different from the white, Northern European stock that first settled the continent. 5 Section 1: The American Values System
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Education- everyone should achieve the highest level of education that his or her abilities will allow. Religious Values- all should live according to basic religious principles, whether or not they belong to a church, mosque or Synagogue. Romantic Love- love should guide marriage decisions. What is The American Dream? “A Place at the Table,” video 6
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Our Changing Values Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness. Narcissism- extreme self-centeredness Environmental protection-protect the environment even if it limits economic growth. Section 1: The American Values System
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 With your neighbor discuss the following questions: 1.What issues concern you the most? 2.Do your values differ from your parents values? In what ways? 3.Should social values such as morality be taught in public schools?
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Enforcing the Norms of Society Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations. Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms. 9
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Different Types of Sanctions Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise. Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death. 10
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Formal Sanctions- Reward or Punishment given by an organization or regulatory agency. Examples: schools, businesses, government Informal Sanctions- A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval. Examples: clapping hands, booing. 11
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Social Control- enforcing of norms either internalization or sanctions. Social Control- Figures of authority enforce these norms. example: Principals at high school, police etc. 12
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Main Sources of Social Change Ideology- system of beliefs or ideas. Social movements- long term effort to promote or prevent social change. Ex: gay rights, civil rights, women’s rights. Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment 13 Section 3: Social Change
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture. Examples: larger population=more competition. Examples: growing immigration= more outside cultural influences. Examples: aging population= different focus on life style (health care) Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another. Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change. Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time. 14 Section 3: Social Change
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change Ethnocentrism – belief that one’s culture is better than another culture. Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers. Cultural Lag Vested Interests – A person who is satisfied with the way things are likely to resist change. They have a vested interest in the way things are. 15 Section 3: Social Change