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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1. Brainstorm as many words using the prefix “Self” (American in common use today.) 2. What do these words suggest about American Culture? 2

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Basic Values of American Culture The American Value System Personal Achievement – evident in the area of employment where achievement is measured in terms of power and wealth. Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative. Work – valued regardless of reward; viewed as sign of virtue. 3 The American Values System Sociologist Robin Williams identified a set 15 values That are central to the American Way of Life.

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Morality and Humanitarianism – religious faith, justice and equality. Charity toward the less fortunate. Efficiency and Practicality – every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done. Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve 4 Section 1: The American Values System

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Equality and Democracy – equal opportunity; right to express opinions and choose representatives in government. Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference. Racism and Group Superiority-themes that periodically lead to prejudice and discrimination against those who are racially, religiously and culturally different from the white, Northern European stock that first settled the continent. 5 Section 1: The American Values System

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Education- everyone should achieve the highest level of education that his or her abilities will allow. Religious Values- all should live according to basic religious principles, whether or not they belong to a church, mosque or Synagogue. Romantic Love- love should guide marriage decisions. What is The American Dream? “A Place at the Table,” video 6

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Our Changing Values Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness. Narcissism- extreme self-centeredness Environmental protection-protect the environment even if it limits economic growth. Section 1: The American Values System

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 With your neighbor discuss the following questions: 1.What issues concern you the most? 2.Do your values differ from your parents values? In what ways? 3.Should social values such as morality be taught in public schools?

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Enforcing the Norms of Society Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations. Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms. 9

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Different Types of Sanctions Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise. Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death. 10

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Formal Sanctions- Reward or Punishment given by an organization or regulatory agency. Examples: schools, businesses, government Informal Sanctions- A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval. Examples: clapping hands, booing. 11

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Social Control- enforcing of norms either internalization or sanctions. Social Control- Figures of authority enforce these norms. example: Principals at high school, police etc. 12

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Main Sources of Social Change  Ideology- system of beliefs or ideas.  Social movements- long term effort to promote or prevent social change. Ex: gay rights, civil rights, women’s rights.  Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment 13 Section 3: Social Change

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture. Examples: larger population=more competition. Examples: growing immigration= more outside cultural influences. Examples: aging population= different focus on life style (health care) Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another. Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change. Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time. 14 Section 3: Social Change

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change Ethnocentrism – belief that one’s culture is better than another culture. Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers. Cultural Lag Vested Interests – A person who is satisfied with the way things are likely to resist change. They have a vested interest in the way things are. 15 Section 3: Social Change


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