Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Sociology4/14/2017CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and AdaptationChapter 3
2Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1 Starter On a Piece of Paper: 1. Brainstorm as many words using the prefix “Self” (American in common use today.) 2. What do these words suggest about American Culture?
3Basic Values of American Culture The American Values SystemSociologist Robin Williams identified a set 15 valuesThat are central to the American Way of Life.Basic Values of American CultureThe American Value SystemPersonal Achievement – evident in the area of employment where achievement is measured in terms of power and wealth.Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative.Work – valued regardless of reward; viewed as sign of virtue.
4Section 1: The American Values System Morality and Humanitarianism – religious faith, justice and equality. Charity toward the less fortunate.Efficiency and Practicality – every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done.Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve
5Section 1: The American Values System Equality and Democracy – equal opportunity; right to express opinions and choose representatives in government.Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference.Racism and Group Superiority-themes that periodically lead to prejudice and discrimination against those who are racially, religiously and culturally different from the white, Northern European stock that first settled the continent.
6What is The American Dream? “A Place at the Table,” video Education- everyone should achieve the highest level of education that his or her abilities will allow.Religious Values- all should live according to basic religious principles, whether or not they belong to a church, mosque or Synagogue.Romantic Love- love should guide marriage decisions.What is The American Dream?“A Place at the Table,” video
7Our Changing Values Section 1: The American Values System Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness.Narcissism- extreme self-centerednessEnvironmental protection-protect the environment even if it limits economic growth.
8With your neighbor discuss the following questions: What issues concern you the most?Do your values differ from your parents values? In what ways?Should social values such as morality be taught in public schools?
9Enforcing the Norms of Society Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations.Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms.
10Different Types of Sanctions Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise.Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death.
11Formal Sanctions- Reward or Punishment given by an organization or regulatory agency. Examples: schools, businesses, governmentInformal Sanctions- A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval.Examples: clapping hands, booing.
12Social Control- enforcing of norms either internalization or sanctions. Figures of authority enforce these norms.example: Principals at high school, police etc.
13Main Sources of Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeMain Sources of Social ChangeIdeology- system of beliefs or ideas.Social movements- long term effort to promote or prevent social change. Ex: gay rights, civil rights, women’s rights.Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment
14Section 3: Social Change Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture.Examples: larger population=more competition.Examples: growing immigration= more outside cultural influences.Examples: aging population= different focus on life style (health care)Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another.Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change.Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time.
15Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeFactors Leading to Resisting Social ChangeEthnocentrism – belief that one’s culture is better than another culture.Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers.Vested Interests – A person who is satisfied with the way things are likely to resist change. They have a vested interest in the way things are.