2What is sociology???Sociology is the social science that studies human society and social behavior.Social Science – Disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and functions of human society in a scientific mannerSocial Interaction – How people relate to one another and influence each other’s behaviorSocial Phenomena – Observable facts or events that involve human society
3How is sociology different? Anthropology – Comparing past/present culturesPsychology – Behavior and thinkingEconomics – Production/Consumption of goods and servicesPolitical Science – Operation of governmentHistory – Study of past events
4What Is Culture? Culture – all the shared products of a human group Material CultureNonmaterial Culture
7Nonmaterial Culture Beliefs Family Patterns Ideas Language Political SystemEconomic System
8Components of Culture Technology Symbols Language Values Shared beliefs of good/bad and right/wrong
9NormsNorms – Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situationsWhat social norms can you think of that exist in our society?Mores – Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significanceLaws
10Examining CultureCultural Trait – an individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need.What are some cultural traits?ExamplesUsing forks, knives, and spoonsSpecific greetings (Boss, Teacher, Friend, Mom)
11Culture ComplexesIndividual cultural traits combine to form the next level…cultural complexes.Cultural complexes – a cluster of interrelated traits.Football is a culture complex that involves a variety or traits.
12Football, a Culture Complex Material Traits:HelmetsPadsFirst Aid KitsBenches
13Football, a Culture Complex Specific Acts:PassingCatchingRunningTackling
14Football, a Culture Complex Specific Beliefs:Certain Rules Should Be FollowedPenalties Should Be Given
15What Do We Have In Common? Cultural Universals – features that are common to all culturesFamilyFuneral CeremoniesShelterDancing
16More Cultural Universals ReligionSportsMyths and FolkloreGift GivingBody Adornment
17Variations in Cultures Ethnocentrism – the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superiorCultural Relativism – the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than applying the standards of another cultureIn other words…KEEP AN OPEN MIND!
18CounterculturesCounterculture – reject society’s norms and replaces them with their ownHippiesOrganized Crime FamiliesAnarchists
19Traditional American Values Although Americans are extremely different, for the most part we all share certain valuesSociologist Robin M. Williams analyzed American values and came up with a list of 15What do you think of when someone says “traditional American values”?
20Traditional American Values Personal AchievementAchievement often measured by power or wealthIndividualismIndividual effort is the key to personal achievementCan be negative…failure = that person is to blameWorkAmericans value hard work
21Traditional American Values Morality and HumanitarianismHelping those less fortunate (Haiti, Syria)Efficiency and PracticalityJudge new technology on its usefulnessProgress and Material ComfortTechnology + Science = A more comfortable world
22Traditional American Values Equality and Democracy“We hold these truths to be self-evident…”Civil Rights MovementFreedomFreedom of religion, speech, bear armsPatriotismPledge of allegiance, national holidays, 9/11
23Our Changing ValuesChoose one or more of the traditional American values we covered in class on Friday.Why do you consider these values to be important?Explain how this value does or does not differ from those of your elders? (Parent, Guardian, Teacher, Coach)
24Our Changing ValuesSelf-fulfillment – a commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential…think, self-help seminarsLeisurePhysical FitnessYouthfulnessDoes television, radio, and advertisements demonstrate and reflect these values?
25More Changing Values Narcissism – Extreme self- centeredness Is this a bad thing?List the pros and consA rapidly changing American valueEnvironmental Protection
26Internalization of Norms Think back to last week…what are norms?Norms – Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situationsSocieties develop norms that reflect the cultural values its members consider importantEnforced in two ways…internalization & sanctions
27InternalizationInternalization is the process by which a norm becomes part of an individual’s personalityWhat do you do as soon as you sit down to eat at a restaurant?What do you do as soon as the traffic signal turns red?
28What are sanctions?Sanctions - Rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to normsPositive SanctionsNegative SanctionsFormal SanctionsInformal Sanctions
29Positive SanctionsPositive Sanction – An action that rewards a specific type of behaviorWhat are some examples of positive sanctions?Good GradesPay RaisesCheers
30Negative SanctionsNegative Sanction – Punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformityIs the threat usually enough to deter behavior?What are some examples of negative sanctions?RidiculeFrownsImprisonment
31Formal SanctionsFormal Sanctions – Reward or punishment given by a organization or agencyPositiveDiploma, Pay Raise, AwardNegativeLow Grades, Suspension, Job Termination
32Informal SanctionsInformal Sanction – A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or groupPositiveStanding ovation, compliments, pat on the backNegativeFrowns, insults, exclusion from a group