Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Sociology4/14/2017CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and AdaptationSection 1: The American Values SystemSection 2: Social ControlSection 3: Social ChangeChapter 3
2 Objectives: Section 1: The American Values System Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture.Describe new values that have developed in the United States since the 1970s.
3 Basic Values of American Culture Section 1: The American Values SystemBasic Values of American CulturePersonal Achievement – built primarily by people that value individual achievement, as in the area of employmentIndividualism – success comes through hard work and initiativeWork – Americans view discipline, dedication, and hard work as signs of virtue
4 Basic Values of American Culture Section 1: The American Values SystemBasic Values of American Culture(continued)Morality and Humanitarianism – Americans place a high value on morality and tend to view the world in terms of right and wrong; quick to help the unfortunateEfficiency and Practicality – practical and inventive, every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done
5 Basic Values of American Culture Section 1: The American Values SystemBasic Values of American Culture(continued)Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improveEquality and Democracy – to have human equality, there must be an equality of opportunity; success is a reward that must be earned
6 Basic Values of American Culture Section 1: The American Values SystemBasic Values of American Culture(continued)Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference
7 Our Changing Values Section 1: The American Values System Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulnessEnvironmental protectionEducation and Religion were deemed important by students who were polled
8 Objectives: Section 2: Social Control Identify how the norms of society are enforced.Describe the differences between positive and negative sanctions and between formal and informal sanctions.
9 Enforcing the Norms of Society Section 2: Social ControlEnforcing the Norms of SocietyInternalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectationsSanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms
10 Different Types of Sanctions Section 2: Social ControlDifferent Types of SanctionsPositive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raiseNegative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death
11 Different Types of Sanctions Section 2: Social ControlDifferent Types of Sanctions(continued)Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as the government and includes promotions, awards, or low gradesInformal Sanction – spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group such as a standing ovation, gifts, gossip, or ridicule
12 Objectives: Section 3: Social Change Identify and describe the main sources of social change.Describe the factors that lead people to resist social change.
13 Main Sources of Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeMain Sources of Social ChangeValues and Beliefs – are affected by ideology spread through social movementsTechnology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environmentPopulation – change in size of population may bring about changes in the cultureDiffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another
14 Main Sources of Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeMain Sources of Social Change(continued)Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural changeWars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time
15 Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change Section 3: Social ChangeFactors Leading to Resisting Social ChangeEthnocentrism – can lead to segregationCultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computersVested Interests – might lead to a focus on maintaining budgets over a focus on providing a quality education and instruction
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