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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Section 1: The American Values System.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Section 1: The American Values System."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation Section 1: The American Values System Section 2: Social Control Section 3: Social Change

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Identify the basic values that form the foundation of American culture.  Describe new values that have developed in the United States since the 1970s. Section 1: The American Values System

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Basic Values of American Culture  Personal Achievement – built primarily by people that value individual achievement, as in the area of employment  Individualism – success comes through hard work and initiative  Work – Americans view discipline, dedication, and hard work as signs of virtue Section 1: The American Values System

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Basic Values of American Culture  Morality and Humanitarianism – Americans place a high value on morality and tend to view the world in terms of right and wrong; quick to help the unfortunate  Efficiency and Practicality – practical and inventive, every problem has a solution; judge objects on their usefulness and people on their ability to get things done Section 1: The American Values System (continued)

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Basic Values of American Culture  Progress and Material Comfort – Americans believe that through hard work and determination living standards will continue to improve  Equality and Democracy – to have human equality, there must be an equality of opportunity; success is a reward that must be earned Section 1: The American Values System (continued)

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Basic Values of American Culture  Freedom – freedom of choice such as religion, speech, and press and protect them from government interference Section 1: The American Values System (continued)

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Our Changing Values  Self-fulfillment – the commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential; includes leisure, physical fitness and youthfulness  Environmental protection  Education and Religion were deemed important by students who were polled Section 1: The American Values System

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Objectives:  Identify how the norms of society are enforced.  Describe the differences between positive and negative sanctions and between formal and informal sanctions. Section 2: Social Control

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Enforcing the Norms of Society  Internalization – process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality thus conditioning that individual to conform to society’s expectations  Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms Section 2: Social Control

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Different Types of Sanctions  Positive Sanction – action that rewards a particular kind of behavior such as good grades or a pay raise  Negative Sanction – punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity such as frowns, imprisonment, and even death Section 2: Social Control

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Different Types of Sanctions  Formal Sanction – rewards or punishments by a formal organization or regulatory agency such as the government and includes promotions, awards, or low grades  Informal Sanction – spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group such as a standing ovation, gifts, gossip, or ridicule Section 2: Social Control (continued)

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Objectives:  Identify and describe the main sources of social change.  Describe the factors that lead people to resist social change. Section 3: Social Change

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Main Sources of Social Change  Values and Beliefs – are affected by ideology spread through social movements  Technology – knowledge and tools people use to manipulate their environment  Population – change in size of population may bring about changes in the culture  Diffusion – the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another Section 3: Social Change

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Main Sources of Social Change  Physical Environment – the environment may provide conditions that encourage or discourage cultural change  Wars and Conquest – are not common but bring about the greatest amount of change in the least amount of time Section 3: Social Change (continued)

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Factors Leading to Resisting Social Change  Ethnocentrism – can lead to segregation  Cultural Lag – a delay in cultural change such as the introduction and use of computers  Vested Interests – might lead to a focus on maintaining budgets over a focus on providing a quality education and instruction Section 3: Social Change


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