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Ch. 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation

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1 Ch. 3 Cultural Conformity and Adaptation
Identification of key people and Definition of terms

2 Key people identified:
Robin M. Williams- Sociologist who identified 15 values that are considered to be central to the American way of life James M. Henslin- Sociologist who suggested that education, religious values and romantic values should be added to the list of core American values. Christopher Lasch- Social historian and author of the book “Culture of Narcissism.” He went so far as to consider the emphasis of personal fulfillment as a personality disorder. He called this disorder Narcissism. (Narcissism- Extreme self-centeredness)

3 Key people identified (continued)
Daniel Bell- Sociologist who felt that the focus on self was dangerous. He felt it weakened the established values of hard work and moderation. It threatened the stability of the capitalist system. Daniel Yankelovich- Psychologist and survey researcher who saw the shifts towards self-fulfillment as a problem. He agreed that Americans believed less in hard work than did earlier generations. He also saw it as a beneficial change. It marked a movement away for satisfaction based on material gain.

4 Vocabulary Terms defined:
Self-fulfillment- Commitment to the full development of one’s personality, talents, and potential. Narcissism- Extreme self-centeredness. Internalization- Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individuals’ personality, there by conditioning the individual to conform to society’s expectations.

5 Vocabulary Terms defined: (continued)
Sanctions- Punishment or rewards used to enforce conformity to norms. Positive Sanctions- Actions that rewards a particular kind of behavior. An example would be parents praise of a young child for good behavior. Negative Sanctions- Punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity. An example would be the possibility of having your car towed is usually enough to persuade you not to park in a “no parking zone.”

6 Vocabulary Terms defined: (continued)
Formal Sanction- Reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulator agency, such as a school, business, or government. Informal Sanctions- A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or a group.

7 Vocabulary Terms defined: (continued)
Social Control- The enforcing of norms through either external or internal sanctions. Ideology- System of beliefs or ideas that justifies the social, moral, religious, political, economic interest held by a group or by society. Social Movement- Long term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change. Examples would be Prohibition Movement, Women’s rights Movement, and Civil Rights Movement.

8 Vocabulary Terms defined: (continued)
Technology- Knowledge and tools people use for practical purpose. Diffusion- Spread of cultural traits-ideas, acts beliefs and material objects from one society to another. Examples include Mass transportation, instant communication through radio, TV, the phone, and internet help to spread cultural traits.

9 Vocabulary Terms defined: (continued)
Reformulation- The process of adapting borrowed cultural traits. Cultural lag- Situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture.

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