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Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May 4 2005 © Rightscom 2005 Thoughts from a different planet.

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1 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Thoughts from a different planet

2 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Thoughts from a different planet (Only slightly different).

3 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Some activities in parallel worlds. Some thoughts on metadata and models. A contextual approach to metadata – 2 examples. Some thoughts on FRBR.

4 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 The nice thing about standards is that there are so many of them to choose from.

5 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 An appallingly inaccurate summary of the development of metadata standards and identifiers for content and media.

6 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 FRBR Handle Multimedia ISRC ISAN ISMN CIS Dublin Core IMS DOI IIM ISWC url urn SICI Books Audio Audiovisual Libraries Copyright Journals Magazines Newspapers STANDARDS Education MARC CAE ISBN ISSN Music Texts EAN Technology Archives Museums UPC ISO codes today 1980s mid 90s ERMI IPI UMID ISTC SMPTE DMCS EPICS ONIX LOM abc MPEG7 MPEG21 ISO11179 RDF XML schema IPDA PRISM eBooks OeBF NITF CIDOC CrossRef P/META XrML uri BICI MPEG21 RDD/REL MI3P SCORM NewsML GRid MPid MWLI SAN V-ISAN ERMI

7 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 MI3P (Music Industry Integrated Identifiers Project) (www.mi3p.org) Four year development funded by recording industry (RIAA/IFPI) and copyright societies (CISAC/BIEM), supported by DSPs (Digital Service Providers). Managed by Rightscom. Standard to be declared May or June this year. 25+ XML message schemas for - declaring new digital releases - declaring rights claims - declaring deals - reporting sales Three new identifiers: GRID (Global Release ID) (Release = box of digital resources) MWLI (Musical Work License Identifier) MPID (Mi3p Party ID) Makes use of ISRC, ISWC, ICPN and any others needed. Releases may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software – doesnt have to include music: so MI3p is a generic multimedia standard. Ongoing development of many new messages and identifiers.

8 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 ONIX (Online Information Exchange) (www.editeur.org) Five years of message standards for text publishers. Managed by publishing industry standards body EDItEUR. Being widely implemented globally – data quality mixed. Being used a reference model for systems development. Messages – ONIX for Books v2.1 (v 3 expected). ONIX for Serials (SPS – Subscription Products, SOH – Online Holdings) in development. ONIX for DOI Registration. ONIX for Multimedia? ONIX LicensingTerms Message (first draft April 2005). A generic licensing terms message, but first implementation (we hope) by journal publishers and digital libraries (ONIX/ERMI). Onix Products may contain digital audio, text, audiovisual, image, software: so ONIX is a generic multimedia standard. Ongoing development of many new messages (and identifiers?).

9 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Why not one multimedia content metadata standard? Different starting points. Different functional requirements. Different levels of granularity for different things. Different views of reality. The days of one size fits all standards are over. But domains are now overlapping and becoming liquid. MI3P will need to accommodate ONIX metadata, and vice versa. The challenge now is interoperability and re-purposing.

10 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Ontologyx (pronounced onto-logics) Ontologyx was formed in 2003 to provide solutions for data interoperability using contextual semantics. Its core resource is Ontology_X - an ontology which can include schemes and terminology from any domain, mapped together through the use of its Context Model (which is really cool). Ontology_X is being built to answer the question: how can I preserve meaning and re-purpose data when combining information from different data sources, whether internal and external?

11 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 project ( ) brought music, text, visual and audiovisual industry groups together to address metadata interoperability - framework resulted. (The project compared notes with Tom Delsey and others on FRBR and with the CIDOC CRM developers). MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary , backed by consortium including IFPI/RIAA (recording), MPAA (film), IDF and EDItEUR (text). Ontologyx created as a brand of Rightscom in October 2003 to develop services and IP based on Ontology_X. Ontologyx background

12 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Expression Fixation Abstract Spatio- Temporal Tangible Atoms/bits I made it Actions I did it Thoughts I conceived it Identifiers include... ISWC ISAN PII DOI Fixed in Abstracted to Creation primary types Diagram 5Generic Metadata SchemaDiagram 10 Identifiers include... ISBN ISSN UPC/EAN DOI Identifiers include... ISRC UMID DOI Abstraction Expressed in Abstracted to Version 2.1 © MUZE Inc April 1999

13 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom ,000 terms. c 23,000 of them are Relators. It is half a million triple statements (everything is a relationship). Can be expressed in different schemas and languages (eg SQL, RDF and OWL) but has its own underlying neutral syntax. Has a dozen ontologies mapped within it (some under development) including MI3P, ONIX, MPEG21 RDD and (a draft) MARC21 ontology. All terms in each mapped scheme have an IsSameAs counterpart in Ontology_X, so it grows as an ontology of ontologies. All triples are asserted by at least one authority but can be asserted or denied by any number of authorities (who sez?). Ontology_X can support conflicting world views. It is a deeply postmodern ontology. Ontology_X structure

14 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Supports the MI3P and ONIX message developments, the IDF metadata profiles and will support the MPEG-21 Rights Data Dictionary. Used as a basis for systems design by commercial clients – several initial implementations under way (its early days yet…). Ontology_X includes schemas as well as simple term heirarchies. It can contain (for example) the complete specification for MARC21, including all syntactic components. But it is a very polite ontology and keeps itself quietly out of the way while the message standards get the public attention. Two projects in 2005 have brought us into the library domain: - ONIX LicensingTerms Message - JISC TIME project – eBook Metadata Testbed – transformation of eBook metadata between MARC21, ONIX, Dublin Core (and LOM?) schemes. Completing December Ontology_X use

15 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor

16 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf HasDateOfPublication

17 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf HasDateOfPublication HasDateOfPublicationInGermany

18 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a set of relationships. 2 1 HasAuthor HasTitle IsPriceOf HasDescription HasForeword IsColorOf IsPlaceOfCreationOf IsAdaptationOf HasDateOfPublication HasDateOfPublicationInGermany HasSmallTextualBitAtTheBeginningWhichMayOrMayNotBeWrittenBySomeoneElse

19 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Metadata is a point of view. 2 1 HasAuthor 21 IsAuthorOf

20 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 HasAuthor: John Smith

21 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 HasAuthor: John Smith Dont let that fool you. Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming committed relationships.

22 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Some things dont matter too much to some people. So they get names rather than identifiers. 1 HasAuthor: John Smith Dont let that fool you. Names are just lazy identifiers who are averse to forming committed relationships. Keep an eye on the underlying data model.

23 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 The universal data model.

24 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 The universal data model.

25 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 A point or portion of time which forms a temporal parameter of a Context. A point or portion of three- dimensional or virtual space which forms a spatial parameter of a Context. An intersection of time and place. A Term which describes the nature of a relationship between one entity and another. The characteristic activity or state of a Context An Entity in a Context playing a role other than that of Time or Place. Act Resource Context Time Place Verb 1-n 0-n Relator Ontologyx semantics are based on the principle that meaning is derived from the specific roles which entities play in events. This is expressed through the underlying Context Model to which all terms are related. These are the primitive elements of the ontology. Contexts are of two kinds: Events in which (or as a result of which) something changes, and States, in which they dont. The Ontologyx Context Model

26 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Contexts can deal with any kind of activity or state eg Originate Pay Copy Transform Digitize Delete Agree Publish Prohibit Record Commission Aggregate EditJPG IssueInvoiceType99 RunProgram123 CropRectangularBitmapImage FilmWithCameraType12345 DistributeInGermanyOnWednesdays DanceWithNeighborWithGreenHat The Ontologyx Context Model Create Conceive CreatePerceivableOutput Express Perform Fix Say Write Speak ExpressAbout Assert Permit Prohibit Require Deny Agree Declare Ascribe MakeBinaryRelationship Specialize Classify SpecializeContextualClass SpecializeRelator Partition Represent Nominate Identify These verbs are organized into an ontological hierarchy NB This is an illustrative subset of the OntologyX Family Tree

27 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 Adapt The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event

28 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 IsAdaptorInContext #2#2 IsAdaptorInContext #1IsAdaptorInContext#1 #1 IsContextOfAdaptor #2IsContextOfAdaptor Adapt The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event

29 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 IsAdaptedBy #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 The Ontologyx Context Model An Adaptation event

30 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 All possible statements about the simplest Adaptation event Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 #1#1 icoAdaptor #2 #1 icoAdaptation #3 #1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4 #1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5 #1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6 #2 IsAdaptorInContext #1icoAdaptor#2 #1icoAdaptation#3 #1icoSourceOfAdaptation#4 #1icoTimeOfAdapting#5 #1#6 #2IsAdaptorInContext#1 #3#3 IsAdaptationInContext #1 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1 #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2 #3 IsAdaptedFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3 #3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3 #3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5IsAdaptationInContext#1 #4IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext#1 #5IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext#1 #6IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext#1 #2IsAdaptorOf#3 IsAdaptedBy#2 IsAdaptorFrom#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy#2 IsAdaptorAtTime#5 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor#2 #3IsAdaptedFrom#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf#3 IsAdaptationAtTime#5 IsTimeOfAdaptation#3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation#3 #4IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource#4 #6 #4 #5#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime#5 The Ontologyx Context Model – Family Relational View

31 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 #1#1 icoAdaptor #2 #1 icoAdaptation #3 #1 icoSourceOfAdaptation #4 #1 icoTimeOfAdapting #5 #1 icoPlaceOfAdapting #6 #2 IsAdaptorInContext #1icoAdaptor#2 #1icoAdaptation#3 #1icoSourceOfAdaptation#4 #1icoTimeOfAdapting#5 #1#6 #2IsAdaptorInContext#1 #3#3 IsAdaptationInContext #1 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext #1 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext #1 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext #1 #2 IsAdaptorOf #3 #3 IsAdaptedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingBy #2 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor #2 #3 IsAdaptedFrom #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf #3 #3 IsAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptation #3 #3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation #3 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime #5 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #4 IsSourceOfAdaptationInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingFromSource #4 #5 IsTimeOfAdaptingInPlace #6 #6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime #5IsAdaptationInContext#1 #4IsSourceOfAdaptationInContext#1 #5IsTimeOfAdaptingInContext#1 #6IsPlaceOfAdaptingInContext#1 #2IsAdaptorOf#3 IsAdaptedBy#2 IsAdaptorFrom#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationUsedBy#2 IsAdaptorAtTime#5 #2 IsAdaptorInPlace#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptor#2 #3IsAdaptedFrom#4 IsSourceOfAdaptationOf#3 IsAdaptationAtTime#5 IsTimeOfAdaptation#3 IsAdaptationInContextWithPlaceOfAdaptor#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptation#3 #4IsSourceOfAdaptationAtTime#5 IsTimeOfAdaptingFromSource#4 #6 #4 #5#6 IsPlaceOfAdaptingAtTime#5 Modified IsVersionOf LastChanged TerritoryOfUse EditedBy The Ontologyx Context Model – Family Relational View The statements map to commonplace descriptive semantics

32 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 The Ontologyx Contextual transformation Each Context has two views – the contextual view…

33 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 Each Context has two views – the contextual view…and the relational view. The Ontologyx Contextual transformation

34 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 An Adaptation event Each Context has two views – the contextual view…and the relational view. The relationship between the two provides the basis of Ontologyx transformation capability (contextual transformation). The Ontologyx Contextual transformation

35 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Adaptor Adaptation Source of Adaptation Adapting Event Time of Adapting Place of Adapting #5#6 #2 #1 #3 #4 An Adaptation event Statements like this made in the relational view: X MadeBy John Smith X AdaptedFrom Y X TimeOfCreation 1996 X MadeIn London means that there was an event Z like this (shown in the contextual view): Z icoAdapter John Smith Z icoAdaptation X Z icoSourceOfAdaptation Y Z icoTimeOfAdaptation 1996 Z icoPlaceOfAdaptation London The Ontologyx Contextual transformation

36 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Act Resource Time Resource Verb Recording Session 1 Songs (1) Someday (2) Never Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett StartTime :30 EndTime :20 Place Clapham Studios A Vocal Sue White Backing Vocal Ian Green Keyboards Bert Blue Recording Session 2 Songs (1) Someday (2) Anyday Producer Bill Brown Engineer Ann Pink StartTime :30 EndTime :55 Place Clapham Studios B Vocal Sue White Keyboards Sally Plum Flute Ian Green Song: Someday Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett, Ann Pink Vocal Sue White Backing Vocal Ian Green Keyboards Bert Blue Recorded June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios A, Clapham Studios B Contextual semantics Song: Never Producer Bill Brown Engineer Jim Scarlett Vocal Sue White Backing Vocal Ian Green Keyboards Bert Blue Recorded 27 June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios A Song: Anyday Producer Bill Brown Engineers Ann Pink Vocal Sue White Flute Ian Green Keyboards Sally Plum Recorded 28 June 2004 Recorded at Clapham Studios B Resource semantics Simple transformation example… The Ontologyx Contextual transformation Contextual transformation can be carried out to any level of complexity and granularity

37 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 COA (Contextual Ontologyx Architecture) Framework The COA Framework is an ontology starter pack: a basic ontology which provides a complete Semantic framework within which all data elements can be placed. All Ontologyx client ontologies are based on this. Attribute Types (All entities may have these) (strings) Descriptor Name Identifier Annotation (controlled values) Category Class Characteristic Quantity Quality TruthFlag (bags) Composite Element Classes (Context Model) (All entities belong to one of these) Key Relators (parent/child) IsSubClassOf IsSubRelatorOf (class/instance) IsA (equivalence) IsSameAs IsSubstitutableFor (part/whole) IsPartOf (reverse links) IsReciprocalOf (type/value) IsOneOf (representation) HasValue HasElement HasDatatype HasCardinality Agent PlaceTime Resource Context

38 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 The ERMI problem: how to deconstruct things like this… and reconstruct them into something a computer can deal with. The right to use licensed materials in collections or compilations of materials assembled in a print format by faculty members for use by students in a class for purposes of instruction Or this… [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}(whether by post or fax [or secure transmission, using Ariel or its equivalent, whereby the electronic file is deleted immediately after printing]), for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use, a single paper copy of an electronic original of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials.] Or this… Contextual approach to licensing and rights metadata

39 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Contextual approach to licensing terms Licensing Event Usage Permits (MAY) 1-n Usage Prohibits (MUST NOT) 0-n Payment Activity Report etc Requires (MUST) 0-n Has Exception Has Condition This structure allows for whatever level of flexibility or granularity may be required now or in the future.

40 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) (0-n) Act (1-n) Usages ONIX Usage Composite structure

41 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Usages Allowed values

42 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc Each of these uses has different specialized children Usages Allowed values

43 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc Each of these uses has different specialized children You can go as far as you like with verbs… ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess Usages Allowed values

44 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc Each of these uses has different specialized children You can go as far as you like with verbs… ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess …but better to keep the verb simple and look at the other variables in the event. Usages

45 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 ERMI modelling at present Complex element: Permission Permitted Use: ILL Method: Print or Fax Constraint: Record-keeping required This slide adapted from ERMI presentation

46 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Fax, Post Record Keeping Act ILL Usages ERMI Usage example in ONIX model

47 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

48 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P1}AcademicLibrary ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

49 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

50 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} {P1}AcademicLibrary [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

51 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} {P2} {P1}AcademicLibrary [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

52 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

53 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} Party {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} {P3}AcademicLibrary {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

54 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource InterLibraryLoan_1 (example #27) {P2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource ONIX Message Usage Model examples Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} Party {L1}Country {P1}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} {P3}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} {R2}PartCopyOf{P1} {P3}AcademicLibrary {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary [Cox] Clause 4.1 (alternative b) [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

55 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 An ontology provides the semantic building blocks for a data model or implementation model. It can also provide tools for managing allowed values and mapping data from different schemes. Dublin Core is an example of a metadata scheme without an ontology. There is no clear model of the relationships between its terms. This has made consistent implementation problematic and limited the potential of DC. FRBR would benefit from an ontology, especially with the emphasis being placed on relationships. The value of ontologies

56 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 The FRBR systems you are designing now will be mainstream in several years time. Is your world going to get simpler or more complex? Can you predict the functional requirements you will have for 2010 or 2015? If not, then focus on the underlying flexibility of the model. Settle the model and put the change management into an ontology. Use what is useful in other peoples standards and metadata, and find ways of helping them make them better so that you can get more benefit. FRBR thoughts from a slightly different planet…

57 Godfrey Rust, FRBR Workshop, Ohio May © Rightscom 2005 Things should be as simple as possible, but not simpler. (Einstein)


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