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© 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata – making DRM happen A presentation for the IDF Members Meeting Bologna, 14 June 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata – making DRM happen A presentation for the IDF Members Meeting Bologna, 14 June 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata – making DRM happen A presentation for the IDF Members Meeting Bologna, 14 June 2005 Mark Bide, Rightscom

2 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 What is Digital Rights Management? A technology for stopping people accessing digital content? A set of technologies for the expression and implementation of policies, designed to facilitate and manage access to digital content Structured rights and licensing metadata for managing information about policies Communication protocols, for communicating this information between people and machines – and critically between machines and machines Technology to manage access and use in accordance with policies Structured usage metadata – and protocols for communicating that information

3 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 In other words…. …. DRM may not be what you think it is A technology for stopping people accessing digital content?

4 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 METADATA not APPLICATIONS Applications change Metadata is for ever – if you get it right! Semantic and syntactic standards are central to effective machine interpretation Machines dont deal with ambiguity very well Its all about persistent, unambiguous identity Of stuff, of people/organisations, and of the policies themselves

5 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 POLICIES not RIGHTS Intellectual property is only one basis on which policies for access and use are established Privacy & confidentiality may be more significant in the development of a trusted network computing environment A generic issue – but one which requires specialisation in particular environments

6 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Case Study: ONIX for LicensingTerms The development of a messaging standard for communication of key licence term information within the academic library supply chain – publishers, intermediaries, libraries, library users

7 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Why is there a requirement now? Growth of digital collections in libraries Cannot be managed as exceptions any longer Variation in licence terms What are library users permitted to do? > Under what conditions? > Which classes of library users are permitted to do what? > What exceptions are there to what they are permitted to do? How can libraries comply with licence terms in the absence of systematic support? How can users even know what the licence terms are?

8 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 What is required? A standard mechanism for the communication of unambiguous licensing information within the library supply chain Libraries Content and transaction management intermediaries Publishers To form part of the ONIX family of standards (EDItEUR) Initial proof of concept project undertaken by Rightscom Sponsored by JISC and PLS

9 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 What is not required A rights expression language We have XrML (ISO/IEC ) and ODRL These are declarative programming languages Controlling rights enforcement technologies – what we usually call DRM Require substantial functionality beyond simply communicating information The ONIX focus is entirely on communication (rights metadata), not enforcement It is about communicating licence terms – not the law

10 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Taking an ontological approach to the problem Thing should be as simple as possible… but no simpler (Einstein)

11 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Licensing Event Usage Permits (MAY) 1-n Usage Prohibits (MUST NOT) 0-n Payment Activity Report etc Requires (MUST) 0-n Has Exception Has Condition This structure allows for whatever level of flexibility or granularity may be required now or in the future. Adopting a generic structure: the terms of a Licence are a group of Events

12 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 WHAT WHENWHERE WHO Act Whats in an event?

13 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Act The context model

14 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Act Resource TimePlace Party Act Chains of events…

15 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use The main event in Licensing is a Usage Usages

16 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) 10 basic uses Search Acquire Access Possess Include Record Derive Provide Relate Destroy Copy eCopy CopyPart Adapt AdaptText Translate Transform etc Each of these uses has different specialized children You can go as far as you like with verbs… ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAn otherLibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess …but better to keep the verb simple and look at the other variables in the event. Usages Allowed values

17 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 A simpler model? Example drawn from a non-ontologically based approach: Complex element: Permission > Permitted Use: ILL > Constraint: Record-keeping required

18 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL Why not take the simple route?

19 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

20 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

21 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

22 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

23 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

24 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

25 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

26 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

27 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossess ForNonCommercialUse This is too many variables. Usages

28 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use Record Keeping Act ILL ProvideLimitedNumberOfPrintOrDigitalCopiesForAuthorizedUserOfAnother LibraryInTheSameCountryToAccessAndPossessForNonCommercialUse With 8 variables – if each has just one alternative – there are 256 possible variations on InterLibraryLoan. Usages

29 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use 1 Verb 1 Party 1 Resource Usages

30 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place Party [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] InterLibraryLoan_1 Clause from a model contract

31 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}AcademicLibrary Party InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

32 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {U1}Provide {P1}AcademicLibrary Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

33 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {U1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party {R2}PartCopyOf{R1} {P1}AcademicLibrary InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

34 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource {U2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party {R2}PartCopyOf{R1} {P2} {P1}AcademicLibrary InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

35 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource {U2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party {R2}PartCopyOf{R1} {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

36 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource {U2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} Party {R2}PartCopyOf{R1} {P3}AcademicLibrary {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary InterLibraryLoan_1 [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee} a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.]

37 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource Time Place Party 3 Verbs 3 Parties 2 Resources 2 Usages 1 Purpose 1 Place {P1}Provide {R1}DigitalResource {U2} Access, Possess Resource {R2}DigitalResource, Printed Resource Party {P2}AuthUseOfLibrary{P3} Party {L1}Country {P1}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} {P3}HasPlace OfPremises{L1} {R2}PartCopyOf{R1} {P3}AcademicLibrary {P2} Purpose> NonCommercialUse {P1}AcademicLibrary [The Licensee may supply to an Authorised User of another library {within the same country as the Licensee}a copy of an individual document being part of the Licensed Materials by post, fax or electronic transmission via the Internet or otherwise, for the purposes of research or private study and not for Commercial Use.] InterLibraryLoan_1

38 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Resource TimePlace Party Use (1-n) (0-n) Act (1-n) Usage: other examples

39 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Conditions, Exceptions and Requirements Conditions, Exceptions and Requirements (including Licensor obligations) are just other kinds of events which can be modelled in just the same way as Usages Elements and structures are implemented in the Message to support all combinations of And, Or and Not operations

40 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Place Party NonCommercialUse EducationalUse Teaching AcademicResearch AcademicStudy PersonalUse PersonalStudy etc Research AcademicResearch ScientificResearch CommercialResearch etc CommercialUse CommercialResearch etc An ontology can support the substitution of parent/child values (and other relationships) to ensure that complex conditions are complied with. Benefits of an ontology of allowed values

41 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Advantages of taking this approach to EDItEUR The structure of the Message is wholly generic: all that needs to change to enable it to encompass other media types and domains is the allowed values Life is not going to get simpler in the licensing of content to libraries. A rich and flexible model and message is essential to solve todays problems and tomorrows

42 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Generic lessons that can be learned from the EDItEUR project – and what might this mean for the DOI community?

43 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 Generic lessons You cannot enforce policies unless you can first communicate them Rights metadata is more important than DRM in many contexts Standardisation of rights metadata, anticipated for over a decade, is now becoming a reality It isnt only EDItEUR – MI3P and MPEG-21 have also been developing related standards Advantages of a generic, ontology-based structure, specialised for particular communities Flexibility, extensibility Meeting specific community needs requires active community engagement

44 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata; IDF Members Meeting Bologna June 2005 A potential role for the DOI? The management of licences requires a comprehensive identity model… …of licensed Resources… …of Parties to Licences… …and of the Licences themselves An actionable persistent identifier could be particularly useful in managing the very complex and challenging many-to-many relationships which are inherent in licence management

45 © 2005 Rightscom – All rights reserved Rights and Licence Metadata – making DRM happen Thank you


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