Presentation on theme: "Metadata issues and DOI doi>. Presentation based on one given at the IDF members conference, July 2000… and Forthcoming additional Handbook material on."— Presentation transcript:
Metadata issues and DOI doi>
Presentation based on one given at the IDF members conference, July 2000… and Forthcoming additional Handbook material on DOI Genres Metadata issues and DOI
overview of presentation... Background Three conclusions The metadata landscape Which schemes matter most to DOI? DOI metadata - practical implications DOI Genres DOI Kernels Handle and metadata Conclusion Metadata issues and DOI
Definitions of metadata popular... Metadata is data about data. Everyone logical... An item of metadata is a relationship that someone claims exists between two entities. framework functional... Metadata is the life-blood of e-commerce. John Erickson (HP)
#1: All metadata is just a view e.g. Views of a person: some (generic) ways in which you might be identified in metadata schemes... Son Legal person Agent Alien Scholar Library user Composer credit card holder Shoe purchaser Author Lottery entrant Hospital patient Citizen Car driver Rights owner Marathon runner Software licensee Parent Tax payer Club member e-consumer Back account holder Husband Charity giver Hotel guest Speeding ticket recipient DisneyWorld visitor Frequent Flyer Concert-goer Passenger Employee Voter Dog owner In each of these roles you will have different IDs and attributes. Three conclusions
#1: All metadata is just a view Creations are the same. An identifier for a published article may refer to... A manuscript The abstract work A draft A (class of) physical copy in a publication A (class of) digital copy (not in a publication) A (class of) digital copy in a publication A (class of) digital format A specific digital copy A (class of) paper copy A specific paper copy An edition A reprint A translation etc…and many combinations of the above Similar views apply to other types of creations. Three conclusions
#1: All metadata is just a view Views must not be confused for digital content and rights management. Mistaken identity can be catastrophic. Increasingly, views need to be interoperable (eg production workflow, rights, marketing within one business). The need for automated, interoperable views in d- commerce will be enormous. Three conclusions
#2: (Almost) all terms need identifiers Each of the values of a view must be defined and identified if other views are to recognize them (what do you mean by an abstract work? an edition? a format? a scholar? a dog owner? a name?) So views need comprehensive controlled vocabularies (nb our reliance on ISO language, territory, currency, time codes). Automation needs disambiguity. Terms of rights must be unambiguous. Anything may be a term of an agreement. Emergence of the value of structured ontologies for commerce (like the indecs model). Three conclusions
#3: Events are the key to interoperability Most metadata is thing or people based. static views e.g. a creation In the Web future, metadata interoperability will be achieved by describing events; relating things and people dynamic views e.g. A created B Event descriptions will also be the key to rights metadata (transactions are events) Three conclusions
These conclusions are being reached increasingly often elsewhere. There is an explosion of metadata activity: Models, Identifiers, Vocabularies, Dictionaries, Ontologies. XML/RDF schemas. Registries/Repositories/crosswalks. Technical standards. The metadata landscape
The metadata landscape for creations Books Audio Audiovisual Libraries Copyright Journals Magazines Newspapers Standards Education MARC CAE ISBN ISSN Music Texts EAN Technology Archives Museums UPC ISO codes 1980s
The metadata landscape for creations Books Audio Audiovisual Multimedia Libraries Copyright Journals Magazines Newspapers Standards Education MARC ISRC CAE ISBN ISSN ISAN Music ISMN CIS Texts Dublin Core EAN Technology DOI IIM Archives Museums ISWC FRBR UPC url urn Handle ISO codes mid 90s IMS
The metadata landscape for creations Books Audio Audiovisual Multimedia Libraries Copyright Journals Magazines Newspapers Standards Education MARC ISRC CAE ISBN ISSN ISAN Music ISMN CIS UMID TextsISTC Dublin Core SMPTE DMCS EPICS ONIX EAN IMS LOM abc MPEG7 MPEG21 ISO11179 RDF Technology XML schema DOI IPDA PRISM eBooks EBooks IIM NITF Archives Museums CIDOC CROSSREF ISWC P/META XrML FRBR UPC urluri urn Handle BICI SICIISO codes today
Convergence All serious schemes are becoming... Granular (parts and versions) Modular (creations within creations) Multimedia Multinational Multilingual Multipurpose EPICS/ONIX (text) SMPTE (audiovisual) SDMI/DCMS (audio/music) eBooks DOI genres CIDOC (museums/archives) FRBR (libraries) Dublin Core CIS (copyright societies) PRISM (magazines) NITF (newspapers) MPEG7 (multimedia) Result: major sector schemes are now trying to define metadata with broadly the same scope, only different emphases.
Which initiatives matter most to DOI? MPEG21 SMPTE data dictionary EPICS/ONIX XrML Criteria... Strong underlying data model Multi-purpose Extensive, structured vocabulary Commercial critical mass Outward-looking
MPEG21 Began 2000 (ISO Motion Picture Expert Group). Possible umbrella for digital multimedia standards. Place to bring technology and content standards together. MPEG track record of disciplined standards development. Most major players getting involved. Not many lawyers (yet). Short-term perception problem: MPEG is audiovisual. Is the challenge too great?
SMPTE Data Dictionary/UMID Began 1998 (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers). Well-structured multimedia technically-oriented data dictionary. ISO metadata registry based, good governance and update procedure. SMPTE track record of disciplined standards development. UMID (Unique Media Identifier) for digital material - complementary to editorial identifiers like DOI. Guaranteed implementation in home sector. Start point for MPEG7 metadata work.
EPICS & ONIX International EDItEUR (EPICS) and AAP (ONIX) convergence (May 2000). Substantial and extensible EPICS metadata dictionary, -model based, from which ONIX XML-tagged subset(s) are taken. Commerce-driven (Amazon etc) with transatlantic industry support and International Steering Group. Likely to be used by eBooks, ISTC. ONIX for video (Amazon initiative)? ONIX for audio? Best chance of e-commerce multimedia vocabulary and schema (and maybe d-commerce?).
Standard controlled vocabularies Existing… Territories, Language, Currency, Date/Time (ISO) Measures (U.C.U.M) Needed… Creation types Derivation types (adaptation, sample, compilation…) Contributor roles (author, translator, cameraman…) Title types (abbreviated, inverted, formal... etc) Media types (formats) Name types Identifier types Encoding types Tools/instruments User roles etc...and many identifiers need establishing or creating (Parties, Agreements, ISWC, ISTC, ISAN, UMID etc)
XrML and Rights metadata DRM (Digital Rights Management) systems at present are for unitary rights: doesnt deal with modularity. Holdup 1: Rights vocabularies need descriptive vocabularies - not yet ready. Holdup 2: Events model needed to integrate descriptions and rights - event-based tools not yet developed. XrML likely focal point for next stage before more mature interoperable developments start to emerge. DOI-R? Interested partners in a prototype?
DOI metadata - practical implications DOI Genres DOI Kernels Handle and metadata Conclusion Metadata issues and DOI
DOI Genres A genre is a DOI view: mechanism for unity in diversity. Genre based on any interest groups view of a type of creation. Functional granularity: create a genre when you need it. Genres can overlap: creations can be in multiple genres. Genre has metadata kernel, Registration Agency, Genre Development / Steering Group? Base Genre for new, unplaced DOIs. Zero Genre for legacy DOIs.
Each Genre starts from Base Genre kernel (8 elements) and may add whatever else it needs. IDF/indecs to develop a kernel extension model this September. DOI Genre vocabulary to be developed - bin tandem with EPICS/ONIX? Can/should coincide with or provide sector requirements (eg ISBN, ISRC, ISWC etc). Different Genres metadata will interoperate if vocabularies are developed within indecs/EPICS/ONIX model. DOI Metadata Kernel
DOI /ISBN DOI GenreBook Identifier ISBN Title Two for the dough Type Manifestation DerivationOriginal Primary AgentJanet Evanovich Agent Role Author DOI Base Genre Kernel Contains critical minimum metadata for basic recognition (but not complete disambiguation). Standard base vocabulary (eg manifestation, version) mean all DOI applications can expect base genre metadata. DOI Genre type (eg book) must be analysable in terms of other attributes (eg media, mode, content, subject).
DOI Genre Kernel Extensions IDF to develop an extended catalogue for all extended metadata requirements from indecs/EPICS model and vocabulary, along these lines... DOI DOI Genre Identifier(s) Title(s) + Types, Languages Type Derivation Media Encoding Genre(s) Form(s) Subject(s) Content Language + Use Type Measures + Units of Measure Content Creations Content Link Sequence, Measure Related Creations + Link Type Creation Event + Type Primary Agent + Agent Role + Tool Source Creation Date(s) Location(s) Availability Event + Type Agent + Agent Role Date(s) Location(s) Price + Type
Metadata declarations Either local webpage or central repository or both (as decided by Genre). Base kernel metadata must be declared. Genre-specific metadata is a matter for the Genre (Development Group/Registration Agency) to decide. Automated access to metadata declaration via Handle data types. XML schemas.
Roles of declared metadata = Functional spec of the DOI kernel (a) to assign a unique DOI to the creation [DOI] (b) to link the DOI to the principal local identifier of a creation (if any) to enable the integration of DOI-related applications and metadata with others [Identifier] (c) to enable a searcher or application to identify the creation by its most common name and the parties(s) responsible for its creation or publication [Title, Main Creator, Role]
Roles of declared metadata (continued) (d) to enable a searcher or application to distinguish the fundamental type of creation (abstract, physical, digital or spatio-temporal), and thereby also to distinguish between creations of different types with the same names and creators. [Type] (e) to enable a searcher or application or distinguish the mode in which the creation is (abstract, audio, visual, audiovisual, multimedia). [Mode] (f) to enable a searcher or application to determine to which DOI Genre the creation belongs [DOI Genre].
Roles of declared metadata (continued) (g) to enable basic metadata about creations from different DOI Genres to be searched, stored or processed in common applications [All, plus controlled values of Role, Type, Mode, DOI Genre].
Handle and metadata Handle data types can create a distributed database. eg etc Data types (and results) must be consistent, so the Handle data type vocabulary must be developed with great care within indecs-based model. Some data types could be genre specific.
Conclusion: DOI - the Integrator? G.Rust 1998: DOI is the most ambitious identifier in the history of the world. But now several things are becoming established... …it has a persistent, granular, flexible, unique identifier which can be a wrapper for other IDs. Not competitive - enhances legacy identifiers functionality in d-commerce. DOI as the integrating digital identifier?...a strong, established metadata model and vocabulary. …a controlled but flexible development structure. …it does not confuse names with addresses. …allows multiple, standardised automated actions. Nothing else comes close...
The DOI model Identifier DescriptionAction doi>
The DOI model Identifier DescriptionAction Rights doi> DOI for parties and events in future?
Metadata tasks for DOI ? Mapping ONIX to –reconcile any differences data dictionary –elements and iids tested in depth; for mappings maintaining iid registry –database –available to anyone building a genre schema, but not need to be public applications based on iid registry –technology tools to ease genre building developing rights management aspects of dictionary.