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Objective: Chapter 13- Biotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "Objective: Chapter 13- Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective: Chapter 13- Biotechnology

2 Biotechnology The use of organisms to perform practical tasks for humans.

3 Recombinant DNA Technology
Putting a gene from one organism into another (plasmid). “AKA gene splicing”

4 Plasmid Circular piece of bacterial DNA that replicates separate from the larger chromosome (in bacteria only)

5 Making a Recombinant DNA Molecule
Restriction enzymes: found only in bacteria and is harvested to cut DNA at specific locations

6 How does it work? Human DNA DNA of Bacteria

7 How does it know where to cut?
Restriction enzymes recognize and cut (splice) the DNA only at specific nucleotide sequences

8 How does it work? Once the DNA is cut, there are sticky ends:
Sticky ends: unpaired bases at the ends of the DNA where the enzymes have cut DNA Ligase: The “glue” that joins the 2 different DNA strands together


10 Gene Therapy Human DNA DNA of Bacteria

11 Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
Any organism that has aquired one or more genes by artificial means. (ex: a plant that contains a gene to delay ripening)

12 Cloning A technique used to make genetically identical organisms called clones Easy to clone bacteria, difficult to clone multicellular organisms like animals First cloned mammal was Dolly, a sheep cloned in 1997 Cloning humans raises serious ethical concerns (is it right or wrong?)

13 What happened to Dolly? Dolly was the first organism that was successfully cloned. Born: 1998 Died: 2003 Cause: lung disease

14 Summary What are the steps in cloning a sheep?
Take a nucleus from the cell of one sheep Take an egg cell from another sheep and take the nucleus out Fuse the nucleus and the egg cell Grow the cells Insert the cells in the uterus of a foster mother

15 Do these cells look alike? Do they function alike?

16 Gene Expression -All cells in the body have the same 30,000 genes on the same 46 chromosomes Gene expression is the transcription and translation of genes into proteins (genes are “turned on” and a protein is made)

17 Cellular Differentiation
Cells become specialized in structure and function (heart cell, brain cell, lung cell)

18 Differentiation Blastula Zygote Embryo Embryo

19 Stem Cells Undifferentiated Cells
Have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells

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