Presentation on theme: "VOCABULARY for GENETIC TECHNOLOGY. CLONING Produces an EXACT COPY of organism; Obtained through ASEXUAL reproduction- Occurs Naturally- Ex: spider plants,"— Presentation transcript:
CLONING Produces an EXACT COPY of organism; Obtained through ASEXUAL reproduction- Occurs Naturally- Ex: spider plants, amebas Artificially – Ex: grafting AND The process by which Dolly the sheep was formed
MAMMAL CLONING Takes a bit more “interference” from humans: The nucleus of a body cell of Dolly’s mother was removed from her body cell This nucleus contained all the genetic information for “Mom” The nucleus was inserted into an egg cell (from which the nucleus had been removed) The egg was implanted into the uterus of Dolly’s mother to develop.
DOLLY is a CLONE of her mother Genetically, they are exactly alike But will their lives be exactly alike?
Next word: RECOMBINANT DNA- DNA that has segments of other DNA (look for the word “recombine” in there) There are two ways that this can happen:
1. In Meiosis During crossing over in meiosis, parts of chromosomes may detach and become reattached to the chromosome of its homologous pair. This produces a new combination of genes on that chromosome.
2. GENE SPLICING The other way to form recombinant DNA: Done in a genetic laboratory: “Foreign” DNA is inserted into a DNA molecule by first: cutting the molecule with a chemical called a restriction enzyme Then: “gluing” the desired gene into that DNA section (also using an enzyme)
Next word: Transgenic organisms Transgenic organisms have DNA in their cells from another organism One example is “the mouse with the human gene” in a video Another example is the bacteria that produce human insulin (humans used to use pig insulin!)
Plasmids Plasmids are small rings of DNA in bacteria that are copied and shared with other bacteria Plasmids are used to spread genetic information throughout a bacteria culture.
VECTORS Vectors are “vehicles” by which DNA is transferred between organisms Often, bacteria and viruses are used as vectors because they exchange genetic info naturally. I’ve also heard this word used in Physics and Math!