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Frontiers of Genetics Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Frontiers of Genetics Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Frontiers of Genetics Chapter 13

2 Applications of Biotechnology
Biotechnology: The use of organisms to perform practical tasks for human use. DNA Technology: Application of biotechnology in which genomes of organisms are analyzed and manipulated at the molecular level Bacteria, such as E. coli, serve as useful models for gene manipulations Do not undergo meiosis (reproduce asexually) Still have means of genetic recombination This natural recombination process is capitalized on in current DNA technology procedures

3 Selective Breeding Cross-breed organisms with desired traits
Enhance expression of trait Produce combination of desired traits

4 Lederberg & Tatum’s Experiment

5 The Human Genome An organism’s complete set of genetic material, defined by order of DNA bases is known as its genome DNA is thousands of times longer than the diameter of the nucleus DNA is able to fit into the nucleus because of an elaborate packing system

6 The Human Genome Project
13 year project to sequence the entire human genome (nucleotide sequence) Knowing sequence is just the first step, must then distinguish between non-coding (introns) and coding (exons) regions Finally functions of all resulting polypeptides must be determined Gene identification is useful in evolutionary research as well as diagnosing , treating and possibly preventing diseases/disorders.

7 Recombinant DNA Technology
Combine genes from different sources, even different species, into a single DNA molecule Bacteria have small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids separate from their larger single chromosome Plasmids can replicate and pass between bacterial cells allowing gene sharing – associated with antibacterial resistance

8 Genetic Engineering Plasmids are used to add genes for useful products into bacteria through a process called gene cloning Remove plasmid Add useful gene Reinsert in bacteria where genes are copied many times

9 Genetically Engineering Insulin

10 Genetically Engineering Insulin

11 How can we do this? Restriction enzymes are proteins that cut genes at specific DNA sequences. Over 75 different kinds of restriction enzymes are known; each one “recognizes” and cut DNA at a particular sequence Restriction enzymes allow DNA to be cut into fragments that can be isolated, separated, and analyzed. The cut ends produce matching “sticky ends” on the DNA fragment and the cut plasmids.

12 Restriction Enzyme Action & Cloning into a Plasmid
Animation – Steps in Cloning a Gene

13 Inserting a DNA Sample into a Plasmid

14 Examples of Genetic Engineering

15 Genetic Manipulation of Plants
Genetic engineering of plants is much easier than that of animals. natural transformation system ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens) plant tissue can re-differentiate transformation and regeneration are relatively easy for many The soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens can infect wounded plant tissue, transferring a large plasmid, the Ti plasmid, containing contains genes for the synthesis of (1) food for the bacterium, and (2) plant hormones. This plasmid has been genetically modified ("disarmed") and used to insert a gene that can be used as a selectable marker as well as a gene of interest, such as herbicide resistance, virus tolerance, decreased sensitivity to insects or pathogens. DNA can now be delivered into the cells by small, µm-sized tungsten or gold bullets coated with the DNA. The bullets are fired from a device that works similar to a shotgun called a gene gun. ANIMATION

16 Natural v. Artificial Twinning Animation
Cloning Natural v. Artificial Twinning Animation Cloning Animation

17 Gel Electrophoresis RFLP Animation

18 Layout of an Electrophoresis Gel

19 Loading the Wells of a Gel

20 Uses of Electrophoresis
Isolation of DNA fragments so that they can be incorporated into a plasmids or some other vector.  Creating a DNA map so that we know the exact order of the nucleic acid base pairs (A, T, C, or G) along a DNA strand. Perform DNA Fingerprinting, which can be used to test organic items, such as hair or blood, and match them with the person that they came from.  This is useful in criminal investigations. DNA Fingerprinting Animation

21 Polymerase Chain Reaction
Method of photocopying DNA in vitro to provide large supply to avoid needing large sample size of cells to extract it (DNA) from. Animation

22 Prokaryotic Control of Gene Expression
Animation 1 Animation 2

23 Eukarotic Controls of Gene Expression
Gene expression is the transcription and translation of genes into proteins Eukaryotic controls are elaborate than prokaryotes Genes are not controlled in clusters Proteins called transcription factors regulate transcription by binding to promoters or RNA polymerase Turned ON or OFF by chemical signals in the cell

24 Cellular Differentiation
STEM CELLS are cells that are undifferentiated and have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells

25 Homeotic Genes “Master switches”; control formation of body parts in specific locations Small changes in these genes can result in major morphological changes

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