Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology The use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life."— Presentation transcript:
1 BiotechnologyThe use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
2 TransgenicsGenetic engineering makes it possible to transfer DNA sequences from one organism to anotherREMEMBER- DNA is universalA gene taken from one species can be replicated in another species.
3 Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA contains DNA from 2 or more different sources.So how does DNA get from one species to another?Vector: a mechanism needed to transfer DNA from one organism to anotherMicroinjectionGene GunBacteria PlasmidVirus
4 Recombinant DNA The host cell is often a bacteria cell Bacteria are used because they have plasmidsA plasmid is a circularpiece of DNA that existsapart from thechromosome andreplicates independently of it.
5 So how do I take a gene from one organism and put it into another? We need to use Restriction Enzymes
6 What are Restriction Enzymes? ProteinsUsed by bacteria to cut viral DNAThey “restrict” the growth of virusesWhat does this have to do with transgenics?!
7 Restriction EnzymesCut strands of DNA at specific nucleotide sequencesThere are many different restriction enzymes that each cut DNA at different nucleotide sequencesUsually occurs at a palindrome5’ GAATTC3’ CTTAAG
8 Sticky Ends Most restriction enzymes cut DNA with a staggered cut The staggered cuts leave the DNA with end pieces “sticking off”We call these “sticky ends”These exposed N-bases will want to join with other complimentary exposed bases
9 So what ?What do you predict could happen if two pieces of DNA are cut with the same restriction enzyme???YES! They will have the same “sticky ends”How could we use this???
10 Restriction Enzymes can be used to make Recombinant DNA. The gene of interest can be isolated using Restriction Enzymes
11 Making Recombinant DNA… Once the gene is isolated, how do we join it with the organism’s DNA?Cut the organism’s DNA with the same restriction enzyme…whyThe sticky ends will naturally be attracted to each otherAdd DNA LIGASE: an enzyme that seals the fragments together
12 Now whenever the bacteria plasmid replicates, the gene will be cloned. Gene Cloning: the production of many identical copies of the same gene.